Thursday, January 1, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The morning was rainy and the ground was soft.  The mud in the city was quite deep.  A heavy mist rested on the low ground.  The sun light was dim and was nearly shut out by the dark, heavy clouds causing the day to seem “gloomy and dismal.”  The roads were so muddy that Thomas Bullock could not walk to the Historian's Office because his shoes would be pulled off his feet by the mud.  He stayed home and parched corn for his planned journey to the Rocky Mountains.  Warren Foote had killed hogs on the previous day and had left them hanging up overnight.  In the morning he found that they had fallen down in the mud, causing him to have to wash them all over again.

In the morning, the plasterers started to plaster the arched ceiling in the lower hall of the temple.  The floor had been laid and the framework of the pulpits and seats for the choir and band had been put in.  The room would soon be ready for meetings.

An issue of the Times and Seasons was printed, that highlighted Elder Noah Rogers’ mission to Tahiti.

At 3:10 p.m., President Young performed a marriage in his room, in the temple.  Truman Leonard Jr. and Ardency White were sealed for time and eternity.  George A. Smith and Parley P. Pratt were witnesses.

At 10:20 p.m., about fifty people assembled together in the Celestial Room.  They kneeled together on the carpeted floor and thanked the Lord for the blessings of being able to meet together.  They prayed that they might be able to continue to be in Nauvoo, in peace.  Afterwards, chairs were placed on the west side of the room for Brigham Young and witnesses.  Another marriage was performed.  William G. Young and Abelia C. Clark were married for time and eternity.  William G. Young was Brigham Young's nephew.

Two or three songs were sung and then President Young invited the group to a supper that was prepared in the Garden Room.  Newel K. Whitney and his wife led the way and only about half of the company followed because the table was not large enough for the whole group.

After the supper had ended, the group heard the sound of Brother Hans C. Hanson's violin and Brother Elisha Averett’s flute coming from the east room (Celestial Room).  The floor was cleared of chairs and tables and filled up with two sets of dancers, one on each side of the stove.  After a few dances, President Young gave a message to the group.  He explained that the temple was a holy place and that when they danced, they danced unto the Lord.  They should no longer dance with the wicked, outside of the temple.  Heber C. Kimball then spoke on the need for parents to be responsible for the conduct of their children.  Their children should not meet with the wicked or have anything to do with their amusements.  Erastus Snow mentioned that he never before attempted to dance in his life until he came on the temple floor.  He was grateful to God for the privilege.  Hans C. Hanson spoke and committed to no longer play his fiddle for the wicked.  There were tears in the eyes of many, and the Spirit of the Lord was very strong.  The meeting concluded at 2 a.m.

The entire group was allowed to stay in the temple overnight.  The sisters retired to the side rooms and the brethren stretched themselves on the floor, or on the sofas.  The bride, bridegroom, and a few friends passed the few remaining night hours in conversation in the office (Heber C. Kimball’s room).

Eighty-nine people received their ordinances on this day.



Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; History of the Church, 7:.561; “Warren Foote Autobiography,” typescript, 73


                         Friday, January 2, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was clear and cold. The mud dried up in the morning.  A large number of people assembled in the vestry of the temple waiting for their ordinances.

In the morning Elder Heber C. Kimball related a dream to Brigham Young.  Before he had retired to bed the previous evening, he prayed to the Lord to enlighten his mind with regard to the work in the temple.


While sleeping he beheld a large field of corn that was fully ripe, he and a number of others were commanded to take baskets and pick off the corn with all possible speed, for there would soon be a storm that would hinder the gathering of the harvest.  The hands engaged in gathering the harvest, were heedless and unconcerned and did not haste, as they were commanded; but he and the man he assisted had a much larger basket than the rest, and picked with all their might of the largest ears of the field, they once in a while would pick an ear that had a long tail on each end and but a few grains scattering over the center of the cob, which were very light.


Brigham Young wrote the interpretation for the dream.


The field represented the church, the good corn represented good saints, the light corn represented the light and indifferent saints, the laborers are those appointed to officiate in the Temple, the storm is trouble that is near upon us, and requires an immediate united exertion of all engaged in giving the endowments to the saints, or else we will not get through before we will be obliged to flee for our lives.


At 6 p.m., the High Council, High Priests, and Seventies met in their rooms for prayer.  In the evening, a group of about forty people assembled in the Celestial Room.  Heber C. Kimball invited the band to play a number of beautiful pieces of music including “Fishers Hornpipe.”  Joseph Young then began dancing the “hornpipe” by himself.  He was soon joined by John L. Butler and two other brethren.  They danced until they were tired and sat down.

Brigham Young then organized a French Four.  After a short dance, Elder Orson Hyde addressed the group, asking them to join in giving thanks.  William Clayton then sang a new song, “Come go with me,” accompanied on the violin by William Pitt and on bass viola by James Smithies.  After a prayer, Brigham Young invited anyone to speak, pray, or shout in tongues.  No one did so Brigham Young then gave a short talk on the worship of God in dance, and in other ways, and the keeping of temple covenants.  He again mentioned that they could not have another public meeting in the attic for fear that the roof would be ruined.  He spoke of the persecutions that were still raging and encouraged the people to be united.  “One thing I will do.  I will do my utmost to break down every thing that divides.  I will not have divisions and contentions.  .  .  .  If Joseph Smith had lived, we should not have been here at this time.  We should have been in some other country.”  He than gave a prophecy,


We can't stay in this [temple] but a little while.  We have got to build another house.  It will be a larger house than this, and a more glorious one.  And we shall build a great many houses.  We shall come back here and we shall go to Kirtland, and build houses all over the continent of North America.


A few of the brethren had been “doubtful as to the propriety of praising the Lord in this way” (with dance and music).  After they heard President Young speak, their “prejudices were dissipated or removed.”

Sixty‑four persons received ordinances this day.  Brigham Young stayed up very late into the night.



History of the Church, 7:561; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; “Thomas Bullock Journal”

                       Saturday, January 3, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was clear and comfortably warm in the morning.  Brigham Young did not arise early because he had been up so late at night.

The city police were busy patrolling much of the day.  At the Historian's Office, Willard Richards was busy dictating items of Church history to Thomas Bullock.

At 5 p.m., Brigham Young came out of his room in the temple into the east room.  He was quite ill, suffering from chills, fever, and pain in his bones.  Prayers were attended to as usual by the various quorums.

One hundred and fourteen people received their temple ordinances.



History of the Church, 7:562; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 116; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                        Sunday, January 4, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The day was warm and the evening was frosty.  There were no public meetings held in the temple on this Sunday because the attic floor was not strong enough for a large number of people and had been swaying.  The lower levels of the temple were still under construction.

A council meeting was held in Brigham Young's room during the morning.  Several sisters spent  the day working on cushions for the new altar.

In the afternoon, another council meeting was held in Brigham Young's room. It was decided that David Candland should be sent to England on a mission.  Brother Candland was serving as a clerk for Brigham Young and he had the unique experience of hearing the brethren discuss his mission call.  He recorded in his journal:


About 2 o'clock he called some of the brethren of the Twelve who were there into his room and asked them whether it would be prudent to send me to England, in which they all responded yes. President Young then desired me enter upon the record and prepare to go as speedily as possible, which I did.


A letter was received from Samuel Brannan in New York, who was preparing to sail with a group of Saints to California.  The Council also discussed the forged Emma Smith letter that had appeared in The New York Sun.  They read James Bennet's letter which had also been published in the Sun on December 19.  The general feeling of the Council was that Bennet was the person who forged the letter.  (See December 9 and 19, 1845.)  Sheriff Backenstos received a letter from Governor Ford.  (See December 29, 1845.)



History of the Church, 7:562; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; “David Candland Journal,” typescript, 2


                       Monday, January 5, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

It was a pleasant morning and many people came early to the temple to receive their ordinances.  Ordinance work began at 8:45 a.m.

Brigham Young was feeling better.  He spent the morning hearing letters, reading newspaper articles, and giving directions for the business of the day.  A letter postmarked in Cincinnati from William Smith was read which was felt to be “scurrilous and slanderous.”

When the labors of the day were over at 9 p.m., Brothers Hans C. Hanson and Elisha Averett played their violin and flute in the Celestial Room.  They were soon joined in dance by many others.  Efforts were made to persuade sixty‑five-year‑old George W. Harris1 to join in, but “his gravity and superior wisdom forbade him to do so, and he thought that as he had not yet danced in his life, he would not begin at the present time.”  The dance concluded at midnight.  Brigham Young left the temple, taking his carriage home.  It was a frosty night.

There were 104 people who received their temple ordinances this day.


Carthage, Illinois:

The County Commissioners' Court met.  Several bills supporting Sheriff Jacob Backenstos' posse were discussed.  The clerk, Mr. Thatcher, stated than an injunction had been served on him, which had been issued by the clerk of the circuit court, forbidding any bills to be presented in support of the sheriff.  Therefore, he stated that he would not place the bill in the record.  The commissioners refused to recognize the legality of the injunction on the grounds that there were no state laws to authorize such an interference with the county commissioner's court.



History of the Church, Vol.7:564; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                       Tuesday, January 6, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

Brigham Young came to the temple at 11:20 a.m.  His health was still not very good.  During the night he dreamed the same dream three times.

At 11:45 a.m., Elder Almon W. Babbitt brought in the letter that was written to Sheriff Backenstos from Governor Thomas Ford on December 29, regarding the probability of the U.S. Government sending troops to Nauvoo to arrest the Twelve.

At 6 p.m., Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and their wives left the temple to attend a party at Elder John Taylor's home.  He held a supper which “was prepared in the most sumptuous style.”  The dinner concluded around 8 p.m.

In the evening, at the temple, another dance was held.  Hans C. Hanson, Jacob F. Hutchinson,2 and Levi W. Hancock3 played the violin.  James Smithies4 played the bass viola, and Elisha Averett played the flute.  After dancing two figures, Joseph Young addressed the group for quite awhile.  Brigham Young  returned to the temple at 10 p.m. and organized a French four.  Erastus Snow and Levi W. Hancock sang hymns.  The dancing continued until midnight.  Frost again fell overnight.

Ninety people received their ordinances in the temple this day.



History of the Church, 7:565; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:188‑89


                    Wednesday, January 7, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was dull and dry.  In the morning there was a huge crowd in the reception room of the temple, waiting for entrance.  Baskets and pails full of provisions were brought for those working in the temple.  The supply was very generous, more than what could be consumed.  The excess was sent away to be given to destitute families.

Also in the morning about 8 a.m., Daniel H. Wells5 went to Hosea Stout and told him that one of his horses was missing.  He asked if Brother Stout could send a guard to hunt for it.  He offered five dollars if it was found and ten dollars if it turned out that it had been stolen.  At 9 a.m., Daniel Wells told Brother Stout that the horse had been found and he gave him three dollars for his trouble even though he had found the horse himself.

The Church leaders received a letter from the Catholic priest, Father Tucker, informing the Twelve that the bishop could not raise enough money to purchase the Nauvoo property.  They were still interested in purchasing or renting one of the public buildings, but couldn't insure it against fire or mobs.  The Twelve decided not to answer the letter and appeared to be tired of the negotiating with the Catholics.

In the afternoon, the new temple altar was used for the first time.6

At 6 p.m., Ann Maria Foster, wife of Lucian R. Foster, left the temple with her little boy, Lucian R. Foster Jr.  They had been in the temple since the day before at noon.  Little Lucian was very sick when he came, but went away quite well.  Earlier on Sunday, she brought him to the temple requesting a blessing from the brethren.  Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and Parley P. Pratt laid their hands upon him and asked the Lord to restore his health.

Several prayer meetings were held in the temple by the various quorums, praying for the Church leaders and for protection that the temple ordinances may continue.

At 9 p.m., many of the church leaders and temple workers were taken to their homes in William Kimball's (Heber's son's) carriage.  Brigham Young left the temple at 10 p.m.

One hundred twenty‑one persons received their temple ordinances this day.


St. Charles, Illinois:

Reuben Miller was in Ottawa, Illinois, to organize a company of one hundred families for the journey to the west.  On this day, in St. Charles, he encountered James J. Strang, who claimed to be the true successor of Joseph Smith.  Strang and Miller agreed to hold a debate in front of sixty Saints.  Strang spoke first for four hours.  Miller’s counter-arguments were poor and he admitted that he could not refute Strang’s words.  As a result, Strang had great success leading away many of these Saints from the Church.  Reuben Miller was also influenced and would follow after Strang for a time.



“Lorenzo Brown Journal,” typescript, 15; History of the Church, 7:566; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Van Noord, King of Beaver Island, 39


                      Thursday, January 8, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

It was a cold day.  Work continued on the lower levels of the temple.  While Lorenzo Brown was working on a scaffold in the lower room of the temple, the scaffold gave way and he fell, along with five others, from a height of about fifteen feet onto the floor.  They fell on tools, timbers, and planks.  Lorenzo was the only one who escaped injury.  Jesse Haven fell beside him with a very heavy plank lying across him.  Lorenzo quickly sprang to help him, thinking he was dead.  Jesse revived shortly after being lifted, but was badly hurt.  Brother Josiah Perry’s feet were broken and never recovered.7

The night was frosty.  Eighty‑one people received their temple ordinances on this day.



Lorenzo Brown Journal,” typescript, 15; History of the Church, 7:566; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                         Friday, January 9, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

It was another cold day.  Brigham Young attended to sealing ordinances at the altar.  The quorums met as usual for prayer.

Brigham Young announced that he wanted all “dancing and merriment” to cease in the temple.  He feared the Saints were getting carried away by vanity.  He stressed that the name of God should be held in reverence.

President Young received a letter from Samuel J. Hastings of Boston, proposing to ship passengers, merchandise, and freight to the Pacific coast.

The previous evening, Brother William Taylor had been traveling on the prairie, north of Carthage, and he reported seeing seven men going from Appanoose toward Carthage with a cannon drawn by four horses and bearing a large red flag.

On this evening, at the nightly meeting of the police, Brother John Scott  raised a company of twenty or thirty men to go to Carthage on the next day to attend a meeting of the citizens of Hancock County.  This meeting was being called to appoint delegates, who would meet at a convention in Springfield, to nominate a Democratic candidate for the governor's election next August.

At the temple, as the guard was assembling, a spy was noticed in the group.  Hosea Stout suggested to John Scott that they should “bounce a stone off of his head,” which they promptly did.  When the man came to his senses, he did not know what had happened and left.

After the guard was assembled, a man came into camp, who said he had lost two horses the night before and believed that they had been stolen.  He agreed to pay three dollars to the guard if they would search for them.  They agreed, but did not find the horses.

One hundred and five people received their temple ordinances on this day.


St.  Louis, Missouri:

An editorial appeared in the St. Louis Organ that discussed the persecution of the Mormons in Illinois.  It stated that Governor Thomas Ford was being criticized for not calling out the militia to arrest the Mormon leaders.  It mentioned that Ford’s reason for not making these arrests was because he knew the Mormons wouldn't leave Illinois without their leaders.  The paper felt that Governor Ford was acting wisely, that prosecutions could do no good.  The Saints were willing to emigrate in peace and it said,


Let them go, and end this disgraceful turmoil and strife.  It is quite likely that many of them are bad people, and it is still more likely that there are quite enough bad people in that quarter, not of their number .  .  .  when they are gone, we shall see whether there are any more horses stolen, or counterfeit money passed, in that region.


The editorial felt that the reports against the Mormons had been exaggerated and that their most violent opponents have always been a cast of questionable characters.  It compared those now persecuting the Saints in Illinois with the “great Mormon Eaters” of Upper Missouri, who were the “greatest scamps in the country.”  It was felt that after the Mormons left, that there would still be bad men left in Illinois including those who invited the Mormons to Illinois for the purpose of using them as stepping-stones to power.  These men failed and now persecuted them.  “There will be left those, who, under the disguise of carrying out the laws of Illinois, induced the Smiths to become prisoners, and then in cold blood, (murdered them!) ‑‑ an act of atrocity unparalleled in the history of the age.”

The editorial concluded with, “The time will come, when the fanaticism and immorality of the Mormons will be lost in the recollection of the great barbarism of their persecutors.”



History of the Church, 7:566; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 120; Stanley B. Kimball, BYU Studies, 13:4:504; Times and Seasons, 6:1115


                      Saturday, January 10, 1846


Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was fine.  Louisa Barnes Pratt, wife of missionary Addison Pratt, received her temple ordinances.  She recorded: 


I was called to the temple to receive my blessings where I encountered grievous disappointment, not in the character of the blessings, but in not being permitted to remain through the day as I had anticipated. The house being crowded, the overseer requested us to withdraw and make room for others. I remonstrated, but all in vain. I retired with a heavy heart. Afterwards I had frequent opportunities of attending the different exercises in the house, and felt that all was made right.


During the day, Elder Willard Richards asked Thomas Bullock and two other brothers if they would pray every day that he would be able to live and complete the History of the Church.  They all said that they would.  Elder Richards prophesied, “If you do this you shall become grey headed old men, and you shall become heads of great and mighty kingdoms.” He told them to go record this in their journals.8

Brigham Young received a letter from Wilford Woodruff in Liverpool, England,  informing President Young that he had made arrangements to send his family home to Nauvoo, by way of New Orleans.  Elder Woodruff would return via Boston, then stop in Maine and Connecticut to bring his relatives to Nauvoo in time to go west with the Saints.

Elisha Hoops reported that the mob was making preparations in Warsaw for another campaign against the Saints.

A meeting of the 21st Quorum of Seventies was held.  At this meeting, Zenos H. Gurley9 arose and said the presidents of the 21st quorum had received their endowment.  He observed that it was a remarkable outpouring of the Holy Spirit.  He preached that Joseph and Hyrum had “obtained their exaltation by patient submission to right.”

In the evening a party was held at Brother Horn’s house.  Elder John Taylor spoke to the gathering on the object of man’s creation and his destiny if faithful.  The party concluded around midnight.

One hundred eighteen people received their ordinances this day.


Carthage, Illinois:

A group of brethren went to Carthage as planned the day before.  Everything went well, “the Anties made no resistance and the Mormons carried the day.”



History of the Church, 7:566; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:120-21; Joseph Fielding Smith Jr., Doctrines of Salvation, 1:250; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; “David Candland Journal,” typescript, 3; “Louisa Pratt autobiography” in Heart Throbs 8:236


                       Sunday, January 11, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The morning was clear, but cold.  A public meeting was held in the large room on the second story of the temple.  Many people were turned away because there just wasn't enough room to hold the entire crowd.  The crowds were even pressed in around and behind doorways.  Both Thomas Bullock and Hosea Stout left because there was no room.  Brother John Young and “Father” Freeman Nickerson10 were among those who spoke to the people.  The Twelve did not speak to the people because “they are hunted like wild beasts by a black hearted set of mobbers.”

The “General Council” met and arranged to make an early start for the west.  Various Seventies Quorums met in the afternoon.

Emer Harris and Polly Chamberlain were married.11

A son, Alma Hayes, was born to Thomas and Polly Hayes.12



History of the Church, 7:567; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:121; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 24; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 4:690; “David Candland Journal,” typescript, 3


                      Monday, January 12, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

Very early in the morning, around 2 a.m., Joseph Taylor13 woke up Hosea Stout to let him know that state troops, from Carthage, were coming into town.  Brother Stout immediately went to the temple to check up on the guard.  He sent out spies to see what the troops were doing.  These state troops went to Brother Andrew Colton's home and took him out of bed, under the charge of horse stealing.  They also went to Brother Eastman's stable, broke it open looking for the stolen horse, but did not find it.  They took Andrew Colton off to Carthage.14  Some of the troops stayed behind in Carthage beyond daybreak.  The Nauvoo police were put into a state of emergency and asked to watch the troops.  The troops started to question some of the children in town, trying to get some information out of them regarding certain men.  More of the police began to follow them and the troops started to throw out insults.  Soon a confrontation ensued.  Hosea Stout told the troops that if they ever tried to patrol their streets again at night, without notice, it would mean death.  The Saints would rather die than be treated with such tyranny.  The troops left the city in a rage.

During all this turmoil, temple ordinances continued.  A record one hundred and forty‑three people received their ordinances on this day.  Brigham Young had decided to devote himself full-time to the working in the temple.  He was averaging only four hours of sleep per day and went home just once per week.  He administered at the altar this day, doing sealings.  The practice of “adoption sealing” was being performed.15  Twenty‑six people were sealed to Elder Heber C. Kimball.


“Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 24; “Joseph Hovey Autobiography,” 34; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:121‑23; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; History of the Church, 7:567

                      Tuesday, January 13, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was fine.  A meeting was held in the temple with the captains of fifties and tens who made reports for their companies.  They evaluated how prepared they were to leave for the west very soon, if the persecutions required them to do so.  One hundred forty horses and seventy wagons were ready for immediate use.

Brigham Young spoke to the group about a vision he had of Joseph Smith showing him the mountain which is now called Ensign Peak and a flag that would be raised there.  “The Prophets would never be verified unless the House of the Lord be reared in the Tops of the Mountains and the Proud Banner of Liberty wave over the valleys that are within the Mountains & I know where the spot is and I know how to make this Flag.”  He said that Joseph told him “Build under the point where the colors fall and you will prosper and have peace.”16

Norton Jacob was permitted to leave his floor construction work at the temple to again work at his company wagon shop.  He spent that day across the river acquiring timber.



Near Tahiti, in the South Pacific:

Elder Addison Pratt was making his way to the island of Anaa.  He was detained because of storms and had to adjust to the primitive life of the islands.  He wrote:


The rainy season had commenced in earnest and our cabbin had been made in a hurry and was not tight, and when the heavy rain squalls came on in the night, the rain would pour down upon our beds in streams.  We had a parcel of cocoanut shells that we sat around in different places to catch the water. . . . We had no conveniences for cooking, and in fact there was not much to cook [because recent wars on the islands destroyed food]. . . .Those Anaa natives are verry large men, and as they have been raised on cocoanuts and fish, when they get anything else whatever to eat, it is such an ararity that there is no bounds to their appetite.  We sent them into the mountains for feis [cooking type bananas], and as there were no ripe ones, we had to take green.  This was the first hard liveing I had seen since I left home, and it was an odd thing with me to sit down upon the ground in the open air and ask the Lord to bless a meal of green feis cookt on the smoaky coals.  But it needed the Lord’s blessing, for there was not nutriment enough in it to bless itself.



History of the Church, 7:567; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 24‑5; “Hosea Stout Diary” , typescript, 123‑24; “John D. Lee Diary”; D. Michael Quinn, “The Flag of the Kingdom of God” BYU Studies, 14:1:105; Journal of Discourses, 13:85; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Ellsworth, The Journals of Addison Pratt, 266


                   Wednesday, January 14, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

It was a beautiful day.  At about noon, just as Hosea Stout was about to sit down to eat dinner, a messenger came, requesting Brother Stout to immediately go to the temple.  There, he met with Brigham Young, who requested him to organize the guard to send spies off in different parts of the country to watch and report the movements of the mob.  Brother Stout fulfilled this request.  Spies were sent to Iowa and three or four other directions.

There were no endowment sessions on this day, but many sealings were performed over the altar in Brigham Young's room in the temple.  Among them were: James Allred and Elizabeth Warren, Samuel Bent and Mary Kilburn, Samuel Bent and Cynthia Noble, Samuel Bent and Lettice Palmer, Samuel Bent and Phebe Palmer, Samuel Bent and Maria Thompson, Daniel Carter and Clarissa Foster, Daniel Carter and Sally Perry, John Cutler and Luana Rockwell, Isaac Higbee and Keziah String, John D. Lee and Agatha Woolsey, Isaac Morley and Hannah Finch, Isaac Morley and Lucy Gunn, Edward Partridge and Lydia Clisbee, Joseph Smith Jr. and Olive Andres, Joseph Smith Jr. and Louisa Beaman, Levi Stewart and Melinda Howard, John Taylor and Elizabeth Kaighin, John Taylor and Mary Oakley, Thomas Williams and Nancy Bean, Brigham Young and Harriet Campbell, and Brigham Young and Emeline Free.

Twins, Mary and Martha Scovil, were born  to Lucius and Lucy Scovil.17



“Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:124‑25; Black, Membership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints: 1830‑1848; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                     Thursday, January 15, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

It was a beautiful day.  Brigham Young received a letter from George B. Wallace,18 containing information regarding Samuel Brannan's efforts to charter a ship to take a company of Saints to San Francisco.  The price would be $1,200 per month.  Elder Wallace proposed that the brethren purchase a ship by shares of fifty dollars per person to emigrate to the Pacific coast.  There were about three hundred people who desired to go, but only fifty had funds to make the trip.  They were encouraging the rich to help support the poor.

While Hosea Stout was eating his lunch, he was informed that there were strangers in the city, so he immediately went to the temple, but did not find any problem.

There were no endowment sessions on this day, but more than thirty couples were sealed.



History of the Church, 7:567; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:125; Black, Membership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints: 1830‑1848; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                        Friday, January 16, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was good during the day.  Thomas Bullock spent the day at home packing his bag with clothing and other things for the trip to “California.”

Only sealings were performed in the temple.

The evening weather was very disagreeable.  The snow and the wind were blowing hard from the northeast.

Elder Heber C. Kimball held a party at his home for his adopted (by sealing) family.  They received instructions and enjoyed themselves dancing. 

A daughter, America Stoker, was born to Jacob and Catharine Stoker.


Liverpool, England:

A company of about forty Saints, including Wilford Woodruff's wife, Phoebe, and two of his children, left Liverpool on the ship Liverpool, bound for New Orleans.  Before the ship sailed, Elder Woodruff performed the marriage ceremony for Elijah Sheets and Margaret Hutchinson.19  Elder Woodruff would travel to New York and then travel to Maine and Connecticut for his parents and daughter.



“Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:125‑26; History of the Church, 7:567; “Joseph Hovey Autobiography,” 34; Black, Membership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints: 1830‑1848; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:614‑16


                      Saturday, January 17, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

Thomas Bullock spent the day packing up china for the trip west.

Brigham Young received a letter from Illinois Attorney‑General, Josiah Lamborn.  Mr. Lamborn proposed to write a brief history of the Mormons and their difficulties.  He wanted to sell the copyright in New York for five thousand dollars and was asking for access to church information.

In the evening, Brigham Young attended a concert at the Music Hall.  While his coachman, George D. Grant, was taking his last passenger home, Brigham Young's horses fell through a bridge on Parley Street.  President Young was in bed when he was notified, and he quickly came to reassure his team.  He discovered that they had been between the timbers for almost an hour and could not free themselves.  Timbers were torn away and the horses were lowered one at a time, rolled over, and placed where they could help themselves.  The gully was about six feet deep.  Brigham Young returned home and washed the horses using a gallon of whiskey which prevented stiffness and colds.

Thirty‑six people received their ordinances in the temple on this day.



“Thomas Bullock Journal”; History of the Church, Vol.7:568


                       Sunday, January 18, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

Overnight, about five or six head of cattle were lost and presumed stolen.  Later the cattle were found near Mr. Davidson Hibbard's home.20

A public meeting was held in the second story of the temple.  Brother Benjamin Clapp preached and Brother John Young prophesied “that all the Saints who would obey the commandments of God would be brought out from among this nation with a high hand and an outstretched arm.”

A meeting was held with the captains of the emigrating companies in the attic of the temple.  This meeting was held to determine how many were ready and willing to start leaving very soon, if necessary, because of persecution.  The captains expressed support and were willing to let their property be used for the purpose of moving the Church from Nauvoo.

Almon W. Babbitt, Joseph L. Heywood,21 John S. Fullmer,22 Henry W. Miller,23 and John M. Bernhisel, were put on a committee to dispose of property to aid emigrating.  They were given power of attorney.  Instructions were given to continue working on the Nauvoo House and to complete the first story of the temple.

The various Seventies Quorums met in the afternoon.  Hiram Stratton24 was cut off by the 30th Quorum for “unchristian‑like conduct” and “fraud and falsehood.”

A daughter, Sarah Emily Candland, was born to David and Mary Candland.  Also, a daughter, Sarah Jane Weeks, was born to Allen and Sarah Weeks.

There were several marriages: Dave Huffaker and Elizabeth Richardson,  Abraham O. Smoot25 and Emily Harris, Elijah Fuller26 and Catharine Walker.



History of the Church, 7:569; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 24‑5; “Warren Foote Autobiography,” typescript, 73; Times and Seasons, 6:1096; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:126; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Black, Membership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints: 1830‑1848; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:646‑47, 485, 3:165


                      Monday, January 19, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The Council of Fifty met at 10 a.m.  It was decided that the captains of the various companies should arrange and prepare as many men as they could, to start for the west, and to leave their families behind.  They were to make sure their families would not suffer.  Not all the facts were available, so President Young appointed a meeting to be held on the next Sunday, at 2 p.m., to make a report of all men and teams that could be ready to depart at short notice.

Brigham Young administered ordinances at the altar the rest of the day except for thirty minutes when he took some refreshments.

In the evening, Brigham Young attended a concert in the Music Hall.  It started to snow.



History of the Church, 7:570; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 126‑27; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 25; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                      Tuesday, January 20, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The day was very disagreeable because of the wind and snow coming furiously from the northeast.  The Nauvoo guard (police) had to parade in the temple cellar.

Hosea Stout received a report from a spy who was sent to Warsaw.  It stated that there were secret societies forming that were making arrangements for a simultaneous attack on Nauvoo and the temple, both by land and water.  At the same time, officers would make an attempt to arrest the Twelve and others.  The report stated that there were spies for the mob in Nauvoo, that daily reports were received, and that one of the guard was probably a spy.  The lives of the Twelve would be sought.  Hosea Stout took the report to Brigham Young.

Because of continued worries of persecution, it was decided to start performing the temple ordinances both day and night.  On this day a record 195 people received their temple ordinances.

The Nauvoo Stake High Council published a circular to the church:


We the members of the high council of the church by the voice of all her authorities, have unitedly and unanimously agreed, and embrace this opportunity to inform you; that we intend to send out into the western country from this place, sometime in March, a Company of Pioneers, consisting mostly of young, hardy men, with some families.  These are destined to be furnished with an ample outfit; taking with them a printing press, farming utensils of all kinds, with mill irons and bolting cloths, seeds of all kinds, grain, etc.


The reason for the early move was to put in a spring crop, to build houses and prepare for receiving families.  The pioneers would proceed west until they found a good place to make a crop, in some valley in the Rocky Mountains.  They would rest there until they could determine a place for a permanent location.  The circular reaffirmed the church's support of the U.S. government in regards to its claim on the Oregon Territory.  Much of the Saints' property would be left in the hands of agents for sale at a low rate.  The funds would be used to move families west.  The charges of counterfeiting were again denied and a challenge was issued to bring any proof forward.  The charges of murder and stealing were also denied.  These wicked accusations were from “someone who wished to fan the flames of death and destruction around us.”

An article was prepared on this day for the Times and Seasons which reported on the progress of the temple:


January, thus far, has been mild, which, in the midst of our preparations for an exodus next spring, has given an excellent time to finish the Temple.  Nothing has appeared so much like a 'finish' of that holy edifice as the present.  The attic story was finished in December, and if the Lord continues to favor us, the first story above the basement, will be completed ready for meeting, in the month of February.  The Font, standing upon twelve stone oxen, is about ready, and the floor of the second story is laid.



“Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:128; History of the Church, 7:570‑2; Times and Seasons, 6:1096

                   Wednesday, January 21, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The snow storm left snow drifts three to four feet high.  It was warmer during the day but below freezing at night.

Brigham Young received a letter from Judge James H. Ralston of Quincy containing:  “I have long known many of the Mormons, who I have always thought good citizens, let them now show that they can suffer and forgive, and that amidst oppression their patriotism grows the brighter.”

At 8 p.m., a report came to Hosea Stout that some men had come into town under suspicious circumstances and that some arrest warrants had been sent in by two strangers, one for Hosea Stout and the other for Elder Orson Hyde.  Hosea Stout immediately went to the temple.  It proved to be a false alarm.

A record 208 people received their temple ordinances this day.



History of the Church, 7:572; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:128; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                     Thursday, January 22, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

Lucy Clayton Bullock, wife of Thomas Bullock, received her temple ordinances.  Afterwards, in the Celestial Room, Brigham Young shook Brother Bullock’s hand and told him to bring his wives to the temple on the next day to be sealed.  As they returned home, Lucy rejoiced “at the intelligence she received this day.”

Heber C. Kimball received a letter from Dr. Alphonzo Young which stated:


I have learned that the mob have been making preparations in Iowa to harass the brethren.  Yesterday they got up a war dance in Keokuk and those participating in it were dressed in Indian garb, and as the report is widely circulated that the Twelve will soon leave for the west, I have no doubt but that the meeting was got up to concoct schemes to take the Twelve, when they cross the Mississippi or soon after.


In the evening, Hosea Stout met Franklin R. Tower, who was returning from spying on the mob in Warsaw.  It was too late to receive a report, so they agreed to meet the following day.

One hundred ninety‑eight people received their temple ordinances on this day.



History of the Church, 7:572; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:128‑29


                        Friday, January 23, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was warm.  The streets were thawing and muddy.  At 8:30 a.m., Hosea Stout met with Franklin R. Tower, who had returned the previous evening from a mission of spying on the mob in Warsaw.  Brother Tower told him that the mob was determined to take Hosea Stout's life.  They were also trying to hire a daring person to secretly assassinate some of the Twelve.  Some spies in Nauvoo gave them news every day.  Brother Tower then gave the same report to Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and Amasa Lyman.

The Warren Foote family were among those who received their endowments.  His sister also received her ordinances.  She was so feeble that she had to be carried up to the attic.  The Footes were not sealed on this day because of the large crowds.  After the Footes left the temple, they went to Elder George A. Smith's home to receive their Patriarchal Blessings from his father, John Smith, who lived in the adjoining room.  Before they received their blessings, they chatted with Elder George A. Smith, who had married Warren Foote's niece Betsey, for his third wife.  Elder Smith related to them how it was a trial to receive the revelation on plural marriage.  He was first told about it from the Prophet, Joseph Smith.  He did not feel at first as though he could receive it as from the Lord, but since he knew Joseph was a prophet, “he durst not reject it.”  Thus he reasoned with himself until he obtained a testimony from the Lord for himself.

At dusk, Thomas Bullock went to the temple with his wives for their sealing.  They dressed and went to the Celestial Room.  There, they sat and waited until they shook hands with Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt, and Amasa M. Lyman.  They then were invited into President Young's room, the holy of holies, and were sealed for time and eternity.  Brother Bullock wrote:  “I praise the Lord for this great manifestation of his love and mercy towards me and grant that the happiness which I now enjoy may last for all eternity.  And may my whole soul continually praise his holy name.”  Afterwards, the Bullocks stayed in the temple rejoicing to the sounds of music.  Brigham Young addressed those assembled and Heber C. Kimball offered the prayer.

One hundred twenty‑eight people received their temple ordinances on this day.


Liverpool, England:

Elder Wilford Woodruff and Joseph A. Stratton27 sailed on the ship Ashburton, bound for New York.



History of the Church, 7:573; “Warren Foote Autobiography,” typescript, 73; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:129‑130; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                      Saturday, January 24, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather continued to be warm and the streets were muddy.

A meeting was held in the second story of the Temple at 10 a.m. to make plans for leaving Nauvoo.  Brigham Young spoke to the group.  He explained that trustees had been appointed to carry on the business affairs of the Church after the Twelve and the Bishops left Nauvoo.  They would carry on finishing the Temple and the Nauvoo House.  They would also work to sell the property in Nauvoo.  A company of young men and a few families would leave within a few weeks and find a place to put in a summer crop.  This exodus was necessary because of those who had abused the laws of the land.  He hoped that they would find a place “where no self‑righteous neighbors can say that we are obnoxious to them.”  He encouraged everyone to be humble and realize the importance of this movement.  He welcomed nonmembers to come west with the Church.  He mentioned that some counterfeiter had been operating in the city.  When their bogus money was rejected, they set out to get revenge by circulating the bogus money throughout the country and spreading lies to conceal their crimes.  The Church leaders had suffered because of these falsehoods.  President Young said that he had faith that God would fight their battles and that their deliverance would be brought to pass.  The time to start westward was soon.


Let there be no feelings about who shall go first; those who go first will lay a foundation for those who shall come after, and none will be neglected in their time.  I have one request to make of all the saints that expect to emigrate with us, that they be subject to their leaders, with their property and means and if this is done I can say there never will be a lack in the church.  .  .  .  I propose that all the saints lay down their property to be used in building the Temple, the Nauvoo House and helping the poor away, such as must go in the first company.


Almon W. Babbitt, Joseph L. Heywood, and John S. Fullmer were sustained as trustees for building the Temple.  Henry W. Miller and John M. Bernhisel were sustained as trustees for the building of the Nauvoo House.  At 2 p.m. the meeting was adjourned.  Brigham Young went to the attic and took refreshments in the dining room.  Afterwards, he administered ordinances at the altar until midnight.

Brigham Young wrote a letter to the Saints in Ottawa, Illinois, who were being influenced by the apostate, James J. Strang.  He forcefully proclaimed that the excommunicated Strang was a “wicked liar.”  His revelations were “pretended” and the letter of authorization that he claimed to be from Joseph Smith was a “base and wicked forgery.”  He further wrote: “Is it not surprisingly strange, that Joseph Smith should appoint a man to succeed him in the presidency of the church some seven or ten days before his death, and yet not tell it to the High Council, nor to any of the authorities of the church?”  He pointed out that Strang never returned to Nauvoo to make his claim before the the Saints because of his own “guilty heart.”   President Young warned the Saints that if they decided to believe in the words of Strang, that Reuben Miller was instructed to cut them off from the Church.28

Levi Jackman's wife Angeline died at the age of fifty‑six.29  He recorded:  “That was a gloomy day for me.  We had lived together some twenty‑eight years without a jar of contention.  She was a kind wife, a tender mother, and neighbor whose loss was lamented.  In short, she lived and died a saint.”

Hosea Stout feared staying at his home at night because his life was being sought by the mob.  He went to the temple and slept overnight there.

One hundred and fifty‑one people received their ordinances in the temple on this day.



History of the Church, 7:575; “Levi Jackman Autobiography,” typescript, 25; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 131; “Thomas Bullock Journal”;  Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 2:769; Van Noord, King of Beaver Island, 39


                       Sunday, January 25, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather continued to be warm and the roads were “dreadfully muddy.”  In the afternoon at  a meeting of captains of hundreds was held.

There was again dissension among the guard.  Brother George W. Langley went to Hosea Stout and demanded that he call the “old police” together to settle a problem.  They met in the Nauvoo temple basement.  Brother Langley was upset that Brother Stout appointed Elam Luddington30 as the sergeant of the guard at the temple.  He made it clear that he would not submit to his leadership.  After Brother Langley had spoken for some time, Brother Stout warned them to cease their bickerings, murmuring, and backbiting.  All but Brother Langley were melted into tears and asked for Brother Stout's forgiveness.  Brother Stout asked for all those who would defend him to the death to give their names to the clerk.  Everyone did, even Brother Langley, yet he still went away complaining.  Brother Stout had a troubling night:


My mind had been so burdened and my spirits depressed at what had taken place in the police, at the unfaithfulness of Langley whom I had taken so much pains to learn to govern and be a man of influence and befriended so long, and now was so ungrateful as to leave me in trouble, that I was almost down sick.


There were other problems in the city.  James Strang was leading many people away from the Church.  Near Ottawa, Illinois, thirty families had left the church and gone with him.  It was rumored that many in Nauvoo were full of “Strangism.”   Four Strangite missionaries came from Voree, Wisconsin.  One of these was Moses Smith.  John Gaylord and William Sangor were also openly advocating Strang’s rights to the presidency of the Church.  Moses Smith sought permission to speak at a meeting in the temple.  Inside the temple, several brethren spoke against Smith and the other Strangite missionaries.  After the meeting, a large crowd of curious Saints gathered around the “missionaries” who took turns speaking on a large stone.  They spoke for two hours until they were dispersed by the Nauvoo Police.

William Clayton read a copy of a letter purporting to be written by Joseph Smith on June 18, 1844 in which Joseph appoints Strang to be his successor.  Brother Clayton knew the letter was a forgery and that it was calculated to deceive “the simple minded and unfaithful.”  It was also rumored that many were dissatisfied because the Twelve and others were going west without taking the whole Church.  Among those people complaining were some of the “Temple hands.”  William Clayton's sister‑in‑law, Lydia, was among those who had fallen away.  “She has lost her faith in the Church and is on the road to ruin, but so determined that no argument is of any use.  The family feels sorry but cannot change her feelings.  Her mother frets much about it.”

But amidst these difficulties, the Lord continued to bless the faithful.  At a little after 3 p.m., Thomas Bullock and his wife were adopted and sealed into the family of Elder Willard Richards.  Many were sealed into families this day.  Brigham Young kissed all of his adopted children.  It was a very solemn occasion.  At 4 p.m., the Bullocks attended a celebration at Elder Willard Richards’ home where they ate a supper of roast goose.  The Bullocks sang, “Here's the lover she loved so much,” which Elder Richards enjoyed very much.  It was a happy time for all.



“Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 25‑6; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:131-33; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Van Noord, King of Beaver Island, 40


                      Monday, January 26, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather still was warm.  At 9 a.m., Brigham Young went to the temple to oversee the temple work.

Joseph and Hannah Fielding's four children were sealed to their parents.31  Joseph and Hannah were sealed to Hyrum Smith by Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball.

At noon, a meeting of the captains was called.  They were asked to warn all of those who had volunteered to serve as minute men to be ready and be on hand.

In the afternoon, Norton Jacob, his wife Emily, and father Udney Jacob, went to Patriarch John Smith's home to receive their patriarchal blessings.  His father was very pleased with his blessing and said, “Brother Smith, I know you are a true prophet for you have told me the truth.”  Emily's father was greatly strengthened.

Brigham Young appointed Jesse C. Little as the president of the Eastern States Mission.  He also authorized him to meet with the national leaders in Washington D.C. to seek government aid for the migrating Saints.32

Hosea Stout learned that Charles C. Rich was displeased with him, so he went to meet with him.  Brother Langley had been “souring” Brother Rich's mind against Brother Stout.  After they met, Brother Rich was satisfied that Brother Stout was his friend and had not been using any influence against him.  Brother Stout felt that Brother Langley was doing all that he could to turn people against him.


New York:

Brother Samuel Brannan penned a letter to Brigham Young.  He reported that a compromise had been reached with men of influence.  The government would permit the Saints to pass out of the United States unmolested.  Brother Brannan entered an agreement with an Amos G. Benson, who would use his influence with the government and work to protect the Saints.  In return, Benson only wanted one half of all the land that the Saints would claim in the west!  Brother Brannan asked Brigham Young to ratify the contract.  The letter wouldn't be read by Brigham Young for several weeks.  The Twelve would conclude “This was a plan of political demagogues to rob the Latter‑day Saints of millions, and compel them to submit to it by threats of federal bayonets.”  Brother Brannan planned to sail on the Brooklyn with a group of Saints on the next Saturday at 1 p.m.  When they arrived in California, they planned to select a suitable spot on the Bay of San Francisco for a city.



Brown, Historical Atlas of Mormonism, 80; History of the Church, 7:576, 588; Comprehensive History of the Church, 3:35‑7; Joseph Fielding Diary in “Nauvoo Journal,” BYU Studies 19:160‑61; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 25‑6; “Hosea Stout Diary” , typescript, 2:133‑34; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; “William Huntington autobiography,” typescript, 45


                      Tuesday, January 27, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was warm.  Sheriff Jacob Backenstos arrived from Springfield, Illinois, and reported that Governor Thomas Ford had once again turned against the Saints.  Major Warren was making plans to prevent the Saints from going away to the west.  Brigham Young received a letter from Josiah Lamborn in Springfield, stating that Governor Ford was in favor of General John J. Hardin's policy, that of suspending all civil officers, collection of taxes, and placing the county under martial law.  These reports would have a direct influence on the decision to leave Nauvoo as soon as possible.

Elder George A. Smith and Willard Richards were sick, and couldn't come to the temple.

In the afternoon, Norton Jacob and his Seventies Quorum met at “the old printing office” for a feast.  Their wives, daughters and mothers also joined in the festivity.  They rejoiced together, yet also had a sober feeling.

One hundred and twenty‑six people received their ordinances.  Brigham Young officiated at the altar until 10 p.m. and remained in the temple all night.



History of the Church, 7:576; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 26; “Thomas Bullock Journal”

                   Wednesday, January 28, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

At about 11 a.m., Hosea Stout received word that six to eight of the state troops, or as he called them -- “moblitia,” had come into town again.  He sent the guard to watch their movements and then went to the temple to inform Brigham Young.  Soon the troops left, heading for Pontoosuc, where a number of troops were quartered.

In rained in the evening.  The temple work concluded at 9:30 p.m. and Brigham Young remained in the temple for the night.

One hundred seventy‑two people received their ordinances in the temple on this day.



“Hosea Stout Journal”; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                     Thursday, January 29, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

It rained all day making it “dreadfully muddy” to walk in the city.  The guard was posted around and in the temple, to keep them out of the storm.  In the morning, word came that Major Warren was in town with some troops, along with a man from Warsaw.  At about 1 p.m., it was learned that there were twelve of these troops, who were seeking to arrest some of the leaders of the Church.

The temple work continued throughout this threat.  Joseph Fielding wrote in his journal:


All things dark around us.  It is generally expected the county is to be put under martial law.  Affidavits have been made at Washington by Rigdon or William Smith and Adams or all that we intend to go and bring on the Indians against the government and the design is to prevent our going by putting us under martial law and to hem us in on all sides and then to torment us with writs, etc.  It is hard to think of our brethren leaving us while everything is going so well, especially in the temple.


In the evening, Brigham Young read a letter from Samuel Brannan in New York, which was sent a few weeks earlier, telling him that the government intended to intercept the Church's movements by stationing strong forces in their way and to take away all their firearms.  Brannan stated that this originated because of James Arlington Bennet's letters in the New York Sun regarding the Church's planned movement west.

One hundred thirty‑three people received their temple ordinances on this day.



History of the Church, 7:577; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript,.135; Joseph Fielding Diary in “Nauvoo Journal,” BYU Studies, 19:161; “Thomas Bullock Journal”;


                        Friday, January 30, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The morning was warm and foggy.  The ice broke on the river for the first time since November 28.  At 9 a.m., the weather vane was put on the tower of the Temple.  It was shaped in the form of a prone Angel Moroni.33

William and Elizabeth Hyde received their patriarchal blessings from John Smith, the patriarch.34

David Candland left for his mission to England.  He recorded: “I left my home for England.  Brother Ricks came for me.  The day was wet.  We traveled and stayed five miles beyond Carthage.  We slept in a deserted frame house.”

“Strangism” continued to make some converts among the Saints.35  Reuben Miller, a high priest, baptized in 1843, had been impressed by James Strang's teachings.  On this day, he returned to Nauvoo, to find out more regarding Strang's claims.  He met with Brigham Young.  President Young commented that Reuben Miller “being considerably bewildered by Strang's new fangled revelation, rendered him almost devoid of reason although apparently honest in what he was doing.”  He continued by giving Brother Miller a revelation.  Brigham Young recorded:


Thus saith the Lord unto Reuben Miller through Brigham Young‑‑that Strang is a wicked and corrupt man and that his revelations are as false as he is‑‑therefore turn away from his folly‑‑and never let it be said of Reuben Miller that he was ever led away and entangled by such nonsense.  Thus saying, I left him, my time being too precious to be spent in hearing and even talking about such trash.36


One hundred and seventy‑two people received their temple ordinances on this day.



Jay Todd, “Nauvoo Temple Restoration”; Stanley B. Kimball, BYU Studies, 11:3:538; Notes from Dave Sonntag, University of Cincinnati; William Hyde Autobiography, 16‑7; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:135‑36; Richard Lloyd Anderson, BYU Studies, 8:3:280; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; “David Candland Journal,” typescript, 4


                      Saturday, January 31, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

At noon, Elder Amasa M. Lyman, who was very sick, came to the temple.  He was administered to by Elder Heber C. Kimball.

Twelve-year-old Mosiah Hancock was sealed to a “lovely young girl named Mary, who was about my age, but it was with the understanding that we were not to live together as man and wife until we were 16 years of age.  The reason that some were sealed so young was because we knew that we would have to go West and wait many a long time for another temple.”37  While he was in the temple, Brigham Young came to him and said, “I perceive that you are a sober boy and quick to observe, but do you think you can remember all you have seen and heard in this temple?” “I think I can”, Mosiah replied.  President Young said, “Be sober and remember all you can, for great things will be expected of you”38

Joseph Lee Robinson wrote about the temple work at that time:


It was a hurrying time, a great many thousand people received their endowments in a comparatively short time, but we were thankful to get so great blessings in that holy, holy House.  Surely it was a very beautiful, inspiring House.  It cost us oh so much labor and so much means, but we never regretted what we had done for we considered ourselves well and amply paid for all we had done.


Hosea Stout was worried that the Twelve may be displeased with his methods of  handling of the problems within the police.  He wrote,


But I feel that I have done my duty in protecting their lives from their enemies, both from within and without, which thing has brought down the indignation of the mob and also false brethren upon me, and my life is threatened by both and diligently sought for as I walk in the streets.  But whether I live or die, I am determined to sustain the Twelve and the authorities of this kingdom, although I feel that some very unexpected catastrophe is going to happen because of false brethren.


At 10:39 p.m., the temple work concluded for the day.  The workers came together and Elder Charles C. Rich offered the prayer.

A record 233 people received their temple ordinances on this day.



“Mosiah Hancock Autobiography”, typescript, 31; History of the Church, 7:578; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:136‑37; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Cultures in Conflict, 323



1George Washington Harris joined the Church in 1834.  He was a member of the High Council in Far West and Nauvoo.  He later served in the High Council at Council Bluffs, Iowa.  He did not go to Utah.  He informed Church leaders that he would stay in Iowa until Zion was redeemed in Missouri.  He died in 1857.

2Jacob Flynn Hutchinson would later serve as the first bishop of the Gunnison Ward, in Utah. 

3Levi Ward Hancock was baptized in November, 1830, at Kirtland, Ohio.  He was a member of Zion’s camp.  In 1835, he was appointed as one of the First Seven Presidents of the Seventies.  He later joined the Mormon Battalion and served as the presiding priesthood holder and chaplain for the battalion.  He was one of the first settlers of Manti, Utah.

4James Smithies was born in England in 1807.  He later settled in Salt Lake City, Utah.  He served as a choir director in the Church.

5Daniel H. Wells was a long-time non-member friend of the Saints.  Soon he would join them through baptism.

6This altar was placed in Brigham Young's room.  It was about 2 1/ 2 feet high, 2 ½ feet long, one foot wide, rising from a platform about eight or nine inches high, extending out on all sides about one foot, forming a place to kneel upon.  The top of the altar and kneeling place were covered with cushions of scarlet damask cloth.  The sides of the altar were covered with white linen.  The altar was dedicated; the Twelve, Bishops and their wives were present.  This altar was used to seal couples for time and eternity. 

7Jesse Haven would later serve missions in the Eastern States, South Africa and Scotland. He was away from his home from 1852‑1856. He died in 1905. Josiah Perry would settle in Lynn, Weber County, Utah. He died in 1891. Lorenzo Brown settled in Salt Lake City, Utah and died in 1902

8Thomas Bullock would die in 1885, at the age of sixty‑eight, the father of at least fifteen children. One of the other men, George D. Watt, lived to be sixty‑five, the father of at least twenty‑one children.

9Zenos Gurley would in later years be one of the founders of the RLDS Church

10Freeman Nickerson was baptized into the Church in 1833.  In 1846, he was sixty-six years old.  He was a member of Zion’s Camp.  He filled several missions in the States and in Canada.  He died in January, 1847 at the Chariton River crossing on the Mormon Trail in Iowa.

11Emer Harris was the brother of Martin Harris, one of the three witnesses.  Emer settled in Provo, Utah.

12Thomas Hayes was a member of Zion's Camp.  Alma's family went to Utah in 1852.  He later served as the bishop of the Georgetown ward in the Bear Lake Stake.

13Joseph Taylor was baptized into the Church in 1835.  He later served in the Mormon Battalion and was one of the bodyguards of General Kearny.  He settled in Weber County, Utah.

14It is not known what happened to Andrew Colton at Carthage.  He later settled in Weber County, Utah.

15This principle involved being sealed into a worthy family, usually one of the church leaders.  This practice was discontinued later in 1894 by Wilford Woodruff who receive a new revelation that we were to be sealed “not to any man outside the lineage of his fathers.”

16On 26 July 1847, Brigham Young and other members of the Twelve climbed the peak at the north end of the Salt Lake Valley which became known as Ensign Peak.  Many commentators have asserted that these men raised a flag of the United States on the peak at this time.  B.H. Roberts dismissed this as fiction.  William Smoot claimed that on the peak they raised Heber C. Kimball's handkerchief and spoke of a future raising of an ensign.

17Martha died two weeks later and Mary probably died very young too. 

18George Benjamin Wallace joined the Church in 1842.  In Nauvoo, he served as an undertaker.  Later in 1849, he would serve a mission in England.  In 1860, he would serve as a counselor in the Salt Lake Stake Presidency.  In 1874, he was called as the Stake President.

19Elijah Sheet was baptized in 1840 by Erastus Snow.  At this time, in 1845, he was returning from a mission in England.  He would later serve as Bishop of the Salt Lake Eighth Ward in 1856, an office he held in the ward for about forty-five years.  At one point he was the oldest acting bishop in the Church.  Margaret Hutchinson Sheets had been a governess before she joined the Church in October, 1845.

20Mr. Hibbard was the same man who had the state troops search Nauvoo for his “stolen” hogs.  Davidson's son, William, was the “spy” whose head Hosea Stout “bounced a stone off of.” (See January  9, 1846.) 

21Joseph Leland Heywood was baptized in 1842 by Orson Hyde.  He served as one of the Nauvoo Trustees after the Saints began to leave Nauvoo.  Later he served as the first bishop of the 17th Ward in Salt Lake City in 1849.  He helped lay out the city of Nephi, Utah and presided there for three years.

22John Solomon Fullmer joined the Church in 1839.  He did clerical work for Joseph Smith.  In 1845, he had been sent with Henry G. Sherwood to the Emmett company.  He served as one of the Nauvoo Trustees after the Saints began to leave Nauvoo.  He later made his home in Springville, Utah.

23Henry William Miller was baptized in 1839 by Abel Lamb.  He later served as a member of the Mormon Battalion.  In 1865, he was a pioneer in Southern Utah.

24Hiram Stratton joined the Church in 1832.  He served in Zion’s Camp and served as one of the original members of the Seventies Quorum in Kirtland.  In 1837, he was excommunicated, but evidently later came back into the Church.

25Abraham Owen Smoot was baptized in 1835 by Warren Parrish.  He would later serve as a bishop in Winter Quarters.  He was the father of Elder Reed Smoot of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.

26Elijah Knapp Fuller joined the Church in 1842.  His family settled in Harrisburg, Washington, Utah.

27Joseph Albert Stratton joined the Church in 1840.  He would later spend time in St. Louis, Missouri and served as a branch president for a large group of Saints. He later served as a counselor in a bishopric in the 6th Ward in Salt Lake City.

28Brigham Young would learn in a few days that even Reuben Miller was being influenced by Strang.

29Levi Jackman joined the Church in 1831.  He helped to build the Kirtland and Nauvoo temples.   He later was in the original pioneer company that arrived in Salt Lake Valley in 1847.  He served as a counselor in the bishopric in the 16th Ward in  Salt Lake City.

30Elam Luddington joined the Church in 1840.  He later served in the Mormon Battalion.  He settled in Sugar House, in Salt Lake City, Utah.

31Joseph Fielding was baptized by Parley P. Pratt in Canada, in 1836.  He was quickly called to serve a mission with members of the Twelve to England in 1837.  He presided over the British mission in 1838-40.  He was the brother of Mary Fielding Smith, the widow of Hyrum Smith.  He died in Salt Lake City in 1863.  Hannah died in Ogden, Utah, in 1877.

32Jesse C. Little would arrive in Washington in May, 1846, just eight days after Congress declared war on Mexico.  On June 5, 1846, after much effort, Brother Little met with President James K. Polk who offered aid if they would raise a battalion of 500 men.  Brother Little would accept President Polk's offer, and the Mormon Battalion would be formed. 

33Among the temple architect, William Weeks' papers,  is a drawing of this weather vane.  In one hand was a book and in the other a trumpet.  What happened to this weather vane? It appears that it was taken to Cincinnati in 1867.  Today (1996), you will find such a weather vane on top of the Salem Evangelical and Reformed Church of Cincinnati.  This, however, is not the original vane.  A replica was made of the badly damaged figure.  The original is now in Nauvoo.  A history of the Salem Evangilische Kirche (German) in Cincinnati contends that the weather vane originated with the Cincinnati church, and that it languished in the basement of the church for many years while they argued if it should be mounted horizontally or vertically.  Several years later it was “found” on top of an “abandoned” Mormon church in Nauvoo.

34William Hyde was baptized in 1834. He served a mission to the Fox Islands in Maine, in 1840.  He later became a member of the Mormon Battalion.  He settled in Cache Valley, Utah.

35James J. Strang claimed that Joseph Smith wrote a letter appointing him as successor and that this appointment was effected through the visitation of an angel.  He also claimed to have translated an ancient record with the Urim and Thummin which stated that Joseph Smith was a forerunner who would be slain, but the translator of this record (James Strang) would be a mighty prophet.

36Reuben Miller would be a strong disciple of Strang for several months.  He was sustained as the stake president of The Strang church in Voree, Wisconsin.  But he soon discovered his error and returned to the Church.  He settled in Salt Lake City and later served as the bishop of the Mill Creek Ward.

37Mosiah Hancock married someone else, instead of this girl, when he was twenty‑two years of age.

38Mosiah Hancock also mentioned there was a man who, disobeying strict temple rules, would get drunk in the temple.  His mother was once working as a temple worker when a voice said to her, “Go to your baby.”  She went, and found the drunkard lying on her seven‑month‑old child.  She grabbed the 240 pound man, picked him up, and threw him on the floor.  The little boy would later die in April 1847.