Sunday, July 1, 1849 - Saturday, July 7, 1849
At the Sunday meeting, it was decided to construct a more permanent bowery, which would be located on the southeast portion of Temple Square. The planned structure was to be 100 feet by 60 feet and would require 7,000 feet of lumber.
Emigrants heading for California continued to pour into the valley. This influx of people willing to trade evoked some feelings of greed among the Saints. Patty Sessions' green peas were stolen. With some detective work she followed some tracks and found some scattered peas near the place where a someone had parked his wagon on the way to go do some trading with the emigrants.
No public 4th of July celebration was held in the valley. It was decided to postpone a celebration, to rather combine it with a Pioneer Day celebration on July 24th. Orson Hyde later explained: "They had little or no bread, or flour to make cakes, etc., and not wishing to celebrate on empty stomachs, they postponed it until their harvest came in."
On Monday at Fort Utah a mass meeting was held and several laws were passed for the new settlement. Any person found gambling with the Indians would be fined at least $25.00. Anyone shooting around the fort would also be fined.
On Thursday sadness struck the Orson Spencer pioneer company of about 350 members, located about two hundred miles west of Winter Quarters. One of its leaders, Samuel Gully, a captain of fifty, died of cholera. One of the company members, Amanda Rogers, wrote a letter to her brother-in-law located in the valley. She reported on the sad news that two members of their family had also recently died before the company left Winter Quarters. "Your mother and Mark are dead. They died on the eleventh of May. Your mother about 10:00 and Mark at 1:00 with the cholera, they lived about 24 hours each after they were taken sick. They were both buried in one grave. . . . We are about 200 miles from Winter Quarters. There has been some sickness in the camp. Since we started there has been five died . . . one of the brothers was Brother Samuel Gully, the other McCarty."
Many Saints left their homes in Iowa during the week, crossed over the Missouri River, and gathered at the site of Winter Quarters to organize into a pioneer company led by Elder George A. Smith. The company would consist of nearly five hundred pioneers.
Elder Amasa Lyman was in California collecting tithing from former Mormon Battalion soldiers and other members who had not yet settled in the valley. By Friday he had collected $4,200 which he planned to send back with Thomas Grover. In a letter he reported to Brigham Young that the Saints in San Francisco were still faithful to the gospel but many of the battalion members who had found gold were being very extravagant with their means.
Elder Wilford Woodruff traveled on a steamer to Thomaston. He observed many preparations along the way to celebrate the nation's Independence Day. Cannons were fired off all along the way. Elder Woodruff wrote: "A table was set at Thomaston for 800 men to take dinner. But I should feel more like fasting and praying on the 4th of July than making a display of celebration until the Latter-day Saints and all people could have the privilege of worshipping God according to the dictates of their own conscience without having their brains blown out for it."
Our Pioneer Heritage, 2:555, 571, 3:169, 8:434 William Draper Autobiography, typescript, BYU-S, p.29 Orson F. Whitney, History of Utah, Vol. 1, p.412 Harwell, Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 219 Brooks, On the Mormon Frontier, 2:354 Smart, Mormon Midwife, 132 Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 3:464
At the Sunday public meeting President Brigham Young gave some announcements. He said that as soon as they obtained a printing press, they would use it for public notices instead of making announcements from the stand. He announced that work was available from the Church for those who were interested in helping with the harvest of the Church farm. He mentioned that many of the California emigrants would need to spend the winter in the valley.
President Young had more words to say about the crazed fever for gold. "This is more delusion, and the people are more perfectly crazy on this continent, than ever was the case before, since the days of Columbus." He explained that England received its wealth from coal, iron, and hard work. Other countries who found wealth in gold and silver suffered from effects of gambling and corruption. "Many people will be glad to run away from those gold mines -- men who will be honest will see such mass of corruption that they will pray to be delivered out of it. You heap up gold in the United States, and they will heap up destruction."
President Young shared a few words about persecution. "The devil has marshalled his forces to obliterate the work of God. But it is too late in the day, gentlemen. . . . Persecution against this people only lifts them up. The only way to destroy this people is to foster them with kindness and get the elders of Israel to lock arms with the devil and to walk into corruption, and they would be induced to walk into every dissolute hole on the earth and the Priesthood would be taken away. But I thank the Lord for persecution."
Later in the day, at a meeting with the First Presidency, they discussed missionary calls. Addison Pratt, James S. Brown, and Hyram H. Blackwell would go to the Pacific Islands and Charles C. Rich would go to California. President Young said that it would not be wise for other men to go with their wives and families.
Emigrants bound for the California gold fields continued to pour into the valley during the week. On Thursday Patty Sessions cooked for a group, for a fee of three dollars.
Harvesting commenced about this time. Peter W. Conover and his son Abram G. Conover gathered the first wheat and took it to the Mill Creek mill. There was great joy to see this first harvest because of a severe shortage of flour in the valley.
On Saturday many volunteer workers assemble on Temple Square to work on the new bowery.
On Saturday the large pioneer company led by Elder George A. Smith departed from Winter Quarters. This pioneer company included Welsh Saints with twenty-five wagons, led by Dan Jones.
Elder Wilford Woodruff was on the schooner "Cashier" anchored in Mosquito Harbor waiting for favorable winds to take him to New Brunswick, Canada. It remained foggy without wind most of the week. On Friday the winds finally arrived and the ship left the harbor. On Saturday night he was at the port of Machias, Maine.
Our Pioneer Heritage, Vol. 9, p.126 Harwell, Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 220-23 Brooks, On the Mormon Frontier, 2:354 Smart, Mormon Midwife, 133 Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 3:464-65
On Sunday the Saints met for the first time under the new bowery on the southwest portion of Temple Square.
On Tuesday, Brigham Young, Daniel H. Wells, Charles C. Rich and others went on a camping trip to Great Salt Lake. They enjoyed a bath in the salty waters and visited a cave [no longer exists] at the point of the mountains near the south end of the lake. They traveled into Tooele Valley where they camped for the night. Some Indians were noticed camping on the west end of the valley. On the following morning the brethren again went for a swim in the lake, ate breakfast, and choose a site for a fifty acre farm.
The First Presidency wrote a letter to Oliver Cowdery congratulating him on his return to the Church. They asked him to go with Almon W. Babbitt to Washington, D.C., to encourage congress to admit the state of Deseret into the Union.
On Saturday a sacred meeting was held on top of Ensign Peak. President Brigham Young and many of the other leading brethren in the Church climbed to the top of the peak. There, Brother Addison Pratt received his temple ordinances. He had been away on a mission in the South Pacific when ordinances were administered in the Nauvoo Temple. President Heber C. Kimball blessed and set apart Elders Addison Pratt and Charles C. Rich for their missions.
The Addison Pratt family was having a difficult time accepting the idea that Brother Pratt would again be separated from them. On his first mission he had been away for nearly five years. Sister Louisa Pratt wrote about the family reaction when they brought the news home to the children. "They commenced weeping, and continued in tears nearly the whole time for three days! The second girl wept incessantly." Sister Pratt comforted her daughter. "I told her I believed all would be overruled for our best good. We would trust in the Lord, however trying it might be. The following day was solemn. We were all in tears. The scenes of other years came before me, when I had my family to provide for and little or no means. My heart shrank from the repetition of past trials."
The large company of 1849 pioneers under the direction of Elder George A. Smith stopped at the Liberty Pole camp, on the Platte River to organize. The company was divided into two camps. The companies consisted of 467 people, 129 wagons, 514 oxen, 243 cows, 70 cattle, 23 horses, 1 mule, 4 ponies, 100 sheep, 12 pigs, 74 chickens, 22 cats, 26 dogs, 21 ducks, 4 turkeys, and 2 doves. They also had 157 guns and 38 pistols in the camps.
On Sunday Elder Wilford Woodruff arrived in Canada. He spent the night on the schooner. On Monday morning he tried to board a stage coach for St. John, but the stage was full. He wrote: "Here I was 42 miles from St Johns on foot and no conveyance with a heavy traveling bag with a vast burning forest to go through. I did not stop to meditate or complain of my situation but swung my carpet bag over my shoulder again and started on my journey on foot in good spirits. Most of the road was through dense forest, rocky, and poor soil. Many parts of the forest was inhabited by bears and wolves." On his way a man with a wagon kindly took his bag several miles ahead, making his journey less burdensome. He finally did reach his destination after walking thirty-five miles. "When I did arrive at Mr. Tiltons I was so lame I could scarcely walk at all and was under the necessity of going to bed without supper."
Elder Woodruff continued his journey throughout the week. He traveled to Fredericton by steamer and then rode a stage to Miramichi. See map at http://www.gov.nb.ca/iga/nbmape.htm On Saturday he reached his destination, the home of Brother Joseph Russell, on Beaubaurs Island. Elder Woodruff wrote: "I was thankful to strike hands with and to see a Latter-day Saint after travelling two weeks without seeing any Saints.
THE CONTRIBUTOR, VOLUME 13, p. 236 - 237 Harwell, Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 223-25 Ellsworth, The History of Louisa Barnes Pratt, 101 Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 3:465-69
Tuesday was a day of grand celebration. The first "Pioneer Day" observance was held, commemorating Brigham Young's entrance into the Salt Lake Valley two years earlier. The Saints awoke to the sounds of a cannon and a brass band which rode through the city in two carriages. At 7 a.m. the band arrived at Temple Square. The 100x60 foot bowery had been extended by 100 feet to accommodate a large number of people on this day of celebration.
At 7:15 a.m. a large American flag was raised on a liberty pole, 104 feet high. Six guns were fired, the Nauvoo Bell was rung, and the band played. At 8 a.m. the congregation was asked to assemble by ward. Each ward unfurled their ward's banner. A parade was organized starting at the home of Brigham Young. Marshal Horace S. Eldredge, road in on horseback dressed in a military uniform. Twelve bishops marched with their ward banners. Seventy-four young men dressed in white came in, each holding a copy of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States. Twenty-four young ladies, also dressed in white, with wreathes of white roses on their heads carried copies of the Bible and Book of Mormon. Next came the First Presidency, members of the Twelve, and twelve more bishops carrying the banners of their wards. Isaac Morley led twenty-four "Silver Greys," a group of elderly men, each holding a staff with white ribbons fastened at the top.
"The procession started from the house at nine o'clock. The young men and young ladies in passing through the streets, sang a hymn--the cannons kept up one continual roar--the musketry rolled--the Nauvoo bell pealed forth its silvery notes--and the air was filled by the sweet strains of the brass band playing a slow march. On arriving at the bowery, the escort was received with loud shouts of 'Hosannah to God and the Lamb,' which made the air reverberate." Addison Pratt wrote: "I think it was one of the grandest parades I was ever a witness to."
The leaders took their places on the stand and Erastus Snow offered a prayer of thanksgiving. Richard Ballantyne presented the Declaration of Independence and Constitution to President Brigham Young. President Young then led the congregation in a shout, "May it Live Forever and Ever." Erastus Snow read the Declaration of Independence after which the band played a lively tune. Thomas Bullock read a poem, "The Mountain Standard" composed by Parley P. Pratt. Phinehas Richards next gave a stirring patriotic address on behalf of the "Silver Greys." He said: "Soon, like the Patriarchs of old, we expect to be gathered to our fathers. Our bosoms swell with gratitude to the Most High, that after years of tossing to and fro, our feet are once more established upon a land of peace." The multitude then rose and offered the Hosannah Shout led by President Young, while the bishops waved their ward banners.
Several of the brethren spoke, including President Brigham Young. "I rise to rejoice with those that rejoice . . . It is two years ago this day, since I arrived in this valley. . . and now we commemorate this day." He recounted the acts of persecution which drove them to the valley and the valiant service of the Mormon Battalion. "It is Mormonism that has brought us here. I will ask, why was it that Joseph Smith could collect together the highest talents in the nation? Why was it that so much mystery surrounded him? It was because God was with him, and is with us."
Thousands of Saints were escorted by their bishops to eat at tables put under the bowery. Hundreds of California emigrants also participated. During the feast an emigrant company arrived in the valley and was brought to the tables. They were astonished at the warmth received.
Louisa Barnes Pratt, still deeply troubled at the thought of her husband Addison leaving again for a mission, wrote: "How is it possible thought I, that one can be sad in such a place as this. The processions all in uniform, was an admiring sight. The music was exhilarating in the highest degree. The tables were spread with the choicest varieties of things produced from the richest soil, and by our own hands labor. I was seated at the table, which extended through the entire bowery. The sight was grand! Not a mouthful could I eat. I rushed out of the crowd, went in to a tent and laid down. So oppressive was the heat I could not remain there. I went back to my seat and determined to rest there to the end of the exercises. The speeches and toast were exciting. I was forced to smile, even to outbursts, and to my surprise I found myself a partaker in the merriment."
At 3:30 p.m., the parade again assembled and promenaded around the vast congregation as the Nauvoo Bell rang and the cannon roared. Another meeting was held with several speakers. The celebration was closed by the band playing, "Home, Sweet Home" and John Taylor offering the benediction.
Horace Eldrege wrote: "It gave me great pleasure to see so happy an assemblage of people, after all we had passed through."
Elder Wilford Woodruff spent the week on Beaubars Island, seven miles from Chatham. Elder Joseph Russell owned the island, about a square mile, where he built ships. He was the presiding Elder over a small branch of the Church. On Saturday Elder Woodruff bid good-bye and wrote: "I felt greatly blest while on this Island. I received great kindness from Brother and Sister Russell who are Israelites indeed and full of faith and good works. Our hearts were knit together and I felt it good to be under their roof and in their society. I shall long remember my visit with them."
B. H. Roberts, Comprehensive History of the Church, Vol.3, Ch.91, p.493 Orson F. Whitney, History of Utah, Vol. 4, p.247 Harwell, Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 225-235 Snow, Biography and Family Record of Lorenzo Snow, 101-02 Ellsworth, The History of Louisa Barnes Pratt, 101-02 Ellsworth, The Journals of Addison Pratt, 371 Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 3:469-72
At a public Sabbath meeting, President Brigham Young reproved the Saints for "lounging around and wasting their time in trading and speculating, for their families were in wretchedness, and their corn and wheat were dropping into the ground again." He told them to get to work. He urged the bishops to make sure that the work progressed within their wards.
Louisa Barnes Pratt was still troubled about the thought of her husband leaving again on a long mission to Tahiti. Elder Charles C. Rich asked the Pratts to come to his home. Sister Pratt wrote: "The moment I was seated I fixed my eyes intently upon his, and was ready to listen with intense interest! He at length remarked thus, 'I have been talking with President Young and it is now decided that Brother Pratt shall remain at home until next spring.' Joy too great for utterance sprang up in my heart. I thought what glad tidings it would be to our four daughters. I wished to be the bearer of the news, but there was a listener, who ran before us and informed; and ere we reached home they had been to nearly every house in the Fort to tell the news. The friends rejoiced with them and when we entered the house they were sitting cozily around the fire talking it over; their countenances beaming with delight. Mixture of joy and sorrow, is life."
The pioneers at Fort Utah bought some gunpowder from some emigrants. On Friday they decided to try it out in the fort's cannon. William Dayton and George W. Bean fired the first shot. As they were reloading, the gunpowder caught fire resulting in a terrible explosion that threw the two men almost clear to the Fort's gates. William Dayton was killed and George Bean was seriously wounded. "Hout" Conover quickly rode sixty miles to obtain the nearest available doctor, Dr. Blake. Twenty hours later they returned. Brother Bean's life was saved, but his left arm had to be amputated between the wrist and the elbow.
On July 30, 1849, Elder William Howells from Wales, baptized Augustus Saints d'Anna in the sea at Le Havre. He had been sent on a mission to west France by Elder Orson Pratt. This was believed to be the first baptism in France.
Elder Wilford Woodruff visited, Bedeque, on Prince Edwards Island. He found twenty-two members of the Church, including four priests. The Saints seemed "cold" toward the gospel. Their branch president had fallen into sin and drunkenness. On Wednesday he held a conference to reorganize a branch of the Church. Brother William Maxfield was ordained an elder and sustained as the new branch president. During the conference Elder Woodruff spoke for more than three hours. The Saints enjoyed hearing him tell about the pioneers and the Saints in the valley.
Our Pioneer Heritage, Vol. 9, p.125 Harwell, Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 236 Ellsworth, The History of Louisa Barnes Pratt, 102 Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 3:474