Wednesday, October 1, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

An important and historic council meeting was held at the home of Elder John Taylor.  Along with members of the Twelve,[1] were leading citizens of Illinois, members of the Quincy committee, General John J. Hardin (commander of the Illinois state militia), Judge Stephen A. Douglas,[2] and J. A. McDougal (attorney general of the state).  The discussion centered on whether the Saints would be leaving Nauvoo, an action which would appease the mob and bring an end to the persecution, murders and house burning.  This committee felt that if the Saints did not leave, the mob would raise up enough forces to overwhelm Nauvoo.  They were looking for some convincing proof to show the mob that the Saints were really intending to leave Nauvoo.

Brigham Young presented the Church's intentions to vacate the city.  General Hardin liked the plans and promised to do all in his power to help the Saints.  He approved of a proposed idea for the Saints to relocate to Vancouver Island (Canada).  Judge Stephen Douglas commented that the island was claimed by the United States, and felt that there would be no objection to settling there.  General Hardin suggested that there be appointed trustees to sell the property in Nauvoo.

Brigham Young wanted to make it clear that the Church had decided to leave the city.  He mentioned that the greatest proof was that they were not planting winter wheat.  Judge Douglas and General Hardin expressed satisfaction, but were worried that it would be difficult to leave if the Saints could not sell their lands.  The committee asked to have the brethren put their proposal to leave in writing.  They would then bring it before the governor and the people of the state.

The Twelve responded by sending a letter which explained that they were  organizing into four companies of one hundred families for removal from Nauvoo.


That one thousand families, including the twelve, the high council, the trustees and general authorities of the church, are fully determined to remove in the spring, independent of the contingency of selling our property; and that this company will comprise from five to six thousand souls. . . . That we have some hundreds of farms, and some 2,000 or more houses for sale in this city and county, and we request all good citizens to assist in the disposal of our property. . . . That we do not intend to sow any wheat this fall, and should we sell, we shall not put in any more crops of any description. . . . That if all these testimonies are not sufficient to satisfy any people that we are in earnest, we will soon give them  a sign that cannot be mistaken; we will leave them!


While this meeting was going on, about four hundred of the State troops paraded around the city.  They marched to the temple and entered it.  Hosea Stout, the chief of the Nauvoo police, followed them closely. They took a Brother Caleb Baldwin prisoner for a time but later released him.  Finally the troops returned to their camp.  At night, the weather turned gloomy with wind, rain, lightning and thunder.


Quincy, Illinois:

The citizens of Quincy passed a number of resolutions: (1) Accept the Mormon’s proposition to leave the state in the spring with no obligation on the citizens to purchase property.  (2) They did not believe the Mormons were a persecuted people.  Any problems they have had were well deserved.  (3) It was too late to try to settle any difficulties.  (4) If the Mormons did not remove as promised, the anti-Mormons would be ready to use force.  (5) Other counties should let them know if they agreed with these resolutions. (6) Sheriff Backenstos should resign his office. (7) All legal prosecutions in process related to the recent difficulties should be dropped.  (8)  The Mormons should appoint commissioners to sell their property.  (9) To help the poor, widowed, and orphans in Nauvoo, a committee should be appointed to accept donation to aid their removal from the city.  (10) No further arrests were to be made related to the recent problems. (11) No court should be held in the county this fall. (12)  A small military force should be stationed in the county until spring. (13) A committee of five should be appointed to raise a volunteer military force in Adams County to preserve peace.  (14) The Quincy Committee was warmly thanked for their service. (15) That the meeting could be adjourned. (16) That the proceedings of the meeting be published with copies sent to the governor and Church authorities in Nauvoo.

In their convention minutes, they stated:


All the disturbances in the county have grown out of the continual and unceasing depredations of the Mormons upon the person and property of the other citizens of Hancock . . . we are satisfied that no people, however, quietly disposed, can live in the immediate neighborhood of the Mormons without being drawn into collision with them, and without a resort to arms for self-protection. . . . We are satisfied that peace and harmony can be restored to the county, only, by the separation of the Mormons and the other citizens of the county; and whereas, we are not willing to consent that the old citizens of the county, (who are among the best citizens of the State,) shall be driven out, and a community of thieves, robbers, and assassins retained in their stead. . .



History of the Church, 7:449-53;  Clark, Messages of the First Presidency, 1:280; Hosea Stout Diary, typescript, 2:66-8; “Thomas Bullock Journal,” 22; Comprehensive History of the Church, 2:183; Hallwas, Cultures in Conflict, 306


                      Thursday, October 2, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The Twelve and others met in a council meeting with General Hardin’s staff.  The general left around 11 a.m. for Carthage.  Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball went to visit the sick and also went to the temple.  A floor was being laid in the lower level for the upcoming general conference.  In the evening, a council meeting was held at Willard Richards’ home where “great union prevailed.”

A funeral was held for Daniel Spencer’s[3] wife,  Sarah Lester Van Schoonoven Spencer.

Austin Cravath died at the age of thirty-nine.  A son, Joseph Smith Worthen, was born to Samuel and Sarah Worthen.[4]


Quincy, Illinois:

The Quincy committee of John J. Hardin, William B. Warren, Stephen A. Douglas, and J.A. McDougal, wrote a letter to the leaders of the Church.  They reported that since their meeting on the previous day, they had gone to the anti-Mormon camp and had an open conversation with them.  They had read the Church’s statement that the Saints would vacate Nauvoo.  The anti-Mormons told the Quincy committee of their resolution to accept the Church’s proposition to leave.

The committee believed that such a crisis had been reached that it would be impossible for the Church to remain in the country.  “Should you not do so, we are satisfied, however much we may deprecate violence and bloodshed, that violent measures will be resorted to, to compel your removal, which will result in most disastrous consequences to yourselves and your opponents,  and that the end will be your expulsion from the state.”

The committee recommended that the governor leave an armed force in the county to preserve that peace.  They asked Church leaders “to prevent them [Church members] from committing acts of aggression or retaliation on any citizens of the state.”

The anti-Mormons had also resolved to force all Mormon or Mormon sympathizing office holders to relinquish their county offices.



History of the Church, 7:450-51; Heber Kimball Journal in Woman’s Exponent 11:178; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:68; Andrus, Mormon Manuscripts to 1846:  Guide to Lee Library, BYU


                         Friday, October 3, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The Church leaders received a copy of the resolutions made by the anti-Mormon citizens of Quincy.

Thomas Bullock[5] had a conversation with Elder Willard Richards at the temple.  Elder Richards told him that he was going to leave Nauvoo and asked Thomas Bullock to go with him.  Brother Bullock said he would. Elder Richards instructed him to sell his property.  Thomas Bullock returned home and shared the exciting news with his wife that they would be leaving for California.  He also told Stephen Nixon[6] who expressed interest to go too.

Hosea Stout met with Shadrach Roundy[7] who informed him that Brigham Young had asked Brother Roundy to raise a company of one hundred men to emigrate to California.  This number would include members of the “old Police” from the Nauvoo Legion.  Brother Stout went to the temple and asked John D. Lee if Brother Roundy’s statement was true.  Brother Lee confirmed it, saying that he was present when President Young gave this order.  Brother Lee speculated that President Young was probably dissatisfied with the “old Police” and this was a way to give them a new assignment.


New York City, New York:

Orson Pratt wrote a letter to Samuel Brannan reporting that he had just returned from a short mission to Boston, Lowell, and Peterboro.  “I found the saints in those places, united and firm in the cause of truth, rejoicing in the increased light and knowledge of this great dispensation.”   The Saints were enthused about the progress of the Nauvoo House and the Nauvoo Temple.  “They look forward with joy to the time when they shall meet with the thousands of Saints, to receive the necessary preparations, knowledge, and endowments, for the exaltation of themselves, together with their progenitors and children.”  The Saints in the east had responded to a call to purchase canvas for a tabernacle in Nauvoo.



History of the Church, 7:450-51; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:68-9; “Thomas Bullock Journal,” 22-3; Watson, The Orson Pratt Journals, 289-90


                      Saturday, October 4, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

It was a gloomy, rainy day.  Hosea Stout awoke in the morning to discover that his cows had broken into his garden and nearly destroyed all of his cabbage.  Thomas Bullock spied a flock of thirty‑three geese flying south for the winter.

A General Council meeting was held at Seventies' Hall.  On the way to the meeting, Elder Willard Richards prophesied to other members of the Twelve that they would be able to find the means to move all of the poor from Nauvoo.

The resolutions from the citizens of Quincy were read to the Council.  Brigham Young recommended that they cease publishing the Church periodical, Nauvoo Neighbor.  The circulation of the newspaper could no longer reach the honest in heart outside of Nauvoo.  The paper should be saved for other uses.  Extras and circulars could still be printed.  The Times and Seasons would also be shut down.

A committee of three, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Spencer and William W. Phelps,[8] was appointed to gather the statements in the press about the Church.  They were to write a document about the persecutions received from the United States.

A report was generated to circulate what the requirements would be for a family of five adults to journey across the plains.  They would need a good covered-wagon, three yoke of oxen, two or more cows and other farm animals.  One thousand pounds of flour, a bushel of beans, one hundred pounds of sugar, a musket or rifle for each man, twenty‑five pounds of salt, a few pounds of dried beef or bacon, a tent for two families, ten to fifty pounds of seed, farming tools, clothes, bedding, cooking utensils, and many other useful items.

An artillery of cannons and ammunition would be taken west.  It was thought that the journey of about two thousand miles, all the way to the coast, would take only four or five months.

Ralph DeLong, age forty-two, died.  Also, Samuel C. Stevens, age fifty died.[9]  A boy, Myron Canfield, was born to Cyrus and Clarissa Canfield.  A daughter, Emily Jane Woodward was born to Jedediah and Emily Woodward.


New York City, New York:

Orson Pratt wrote an epistle to the Saints in the Eastern and Middle States.  He reported about the severe persecution raging around Nauvoo.


Again the flocks and herds, wheat, and other kinds of grain--the hard earnings of an industrious, though much injured people, are destroyed by the desolating ravages of the MURDERERS OF OUR PROPHET AND PATRIARCH.  Again hundreds of families are deprived of a shelter and forced to flee, at the point of the bayonet, from the smoking ruins of their own houses, to seek refuge in other parts. . . . now dwelling in exile in this boasted land of freedom.


Elder Pratt asked the Saints to donate their means to the cause,in addition to the tithing that they were already paying.


One of the most useful weapons of self defense is the Six Barrelled Pistol, about 5 or 6 inches in length.  Let the saints in every branch in the east, obtain large quantities of these for the purpose of self defense. . . . the weapons shall be purchased, and forthwith forwarded by some safe conveyance to the proper authorities in the West, that they may have the means of self defense.”



History of the Church, 7:453‑55; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:69; Watson, The Orson Pratt Journals, 291-92


                        Sunday, October 5, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

There was a severe frost overnight.  The leaves were turning yellow on this very historic day in Nauvoo when the first public meeting was held in the Nauvoo Temple. The official History of the Church reads,


It certainly afforded a holy satisfaction to think that since the sixth of April, 1841, when the first stone was laid, amidst the most straitened circumstances, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints had witnessed their bread cast upon waters, or more properly, their obedience to the commandments of the Lord, appear in the tangible form of a Temple, entirely enclosed, windows in; with temporary floors, pulpits and seats to accommodate so many persons preparatory to a General Conference; no General Conference having been held for three years past, according to the declaration of our martyred Prophet:

'There shall be no more baptisms for the dead, until the ordinance can be attended to in the font of the Lord's House; and the church shall not hold another General Conference, until they can meet in said house.  For thus saith the Lord.’


Brigham Young opened the services with a dedicatory prayer, presenting the Temple, as much as was completed, “as a monument of the saints.”  He prayed, “Lord, we dedicate this house and ourselves, to thee.”

The temple’s motto was: “Holiness to the Lord.”  Other leaders spoke, giving instruction, teachings and bearing testimony.  They included, Patriarch John Smith, Parley P. Pratt, and Willard Richards.  John Taylor expressed the hope that peace would now be established to let the Saints finish the temple and move in a body next spring.  Norton Jacob recorded that Elder Taylor stated that “he would feel to rejoice when he had got beyond the bounds of the Christians for he would not then have to carry his six-shooter in his pocket all the time as he had since the blood suckers tried to suck his blood in Carthage Jail.”

In the afternoon, at 2 p.m., another meeting was held in the temple.  Brigham Young organized four emigration companies under the leadership of members of the Twelve.  The members were “called out,” told to take certain seats, and then given instructions.  Captains were also appointed.  Five teams were called out of each company to work on the temple.  The meeting concluded at 5 p.m.

Luman Shurtliff’s[10] wife, Eunice, was very sick, heavy with child.  She had chills and fever.  Brother Shurtliff sent for the Elders to bless her, but she did not improve.

A daughter, Julia Pack, was born to John and Julia Pack.[11]


Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:

Jedediah M. Grant wrote to Orson Pratt.  He reported that the Saints in that area were doing well and donating money to help him return to Nauvoo.  He wrote, “May the God of Joseph and Hyrum bless them for their kindness to me and my family.”  He planned to leave in the morning with Brothers Andrew H. Scott,[12] James H. Flanigan, and others.  He reported that  the news of persecution around Nauvoo “gives new energy to the saints here.”  There had been eight new converts since his last report, making a total of one hundred baptisms during his stay in Philadelphia.



History of the Church, 7:247; “Joseph Hovey Autobiography,” 72; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 15; “Luman Shurtliff Autobiography,” 65; “Thomas Bullock Journal,” 23; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 2:7


                       Monday, October 6, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The General Conference of the Church was convened in the morning, in the Nauvoo Temple.  Brigham Young presided with five other members of the Twelve Apostles also present.  The conference was opened with singing by the choir and the prayer offered by Elder Parley P. Pratt.  The choir “occupied a gallery at the west end, opposite the stand.”

Elder Willard Richards first addressed the congregation and encouraged them to be more punctual.  President Young had waited from 9:30 a.m. to almost 11 a.m. for the Saints to gather.  Elder Richards stated that there was much important business to addressed during the conference.  He asked that all the Saints who had recently had property destroyed or buildings burned by the mob, to make out an affidavit before the justice of the peace as soon as possible.

Patriarch John Smith, the president of the Nauvoo stake, was asked to present the authorities of the Church for sustaining vote.  He presented the Twelve Apostles as the Presidents of the whole church.  Each member of the Twelve was sustained individually.  When Elder William Smith's name was presented, Elder Orson Pratt arose and stated, “I have an objection to Brother William continuing in that office.  I feel, as an individual, that I cannot, conscientiously, uphold and sustain Brother William as one of the Twelve Apostles, until he thinks different from what he does now. . . . I have proof positive that he is an aspiring man; that he aspires to uproot and undermine the legal Presidency of the Church, that he may occupy the place himself.”  The official conference minutes record, “The motion being seconded, a vote was then taken to sustain him, but was lost unanimously.”

When Elder Lyman Wight's[13] name was presented, Almon W. Babbitt[14] stated that he could not conscientiously vote to sustain him.  He felt that Elder Wight had sought to divide the Church and was not united with the Twelve.  Elder Heber C. Kimball arose and stated that at the last conference they had voted to retain Elder Wight, to see what course he would take.  Since that time, Elder Wight had been away with a small company of Saints and they did not know where he was or what he was doing.  “Whereupon it was moved, that we let the case of Brother Lyman Wight lay over for the present until we hear from him.  Seconded and carried unanimously.”

Isaac Morley then arose to present William Smith as the patriarch of the Church.  The vote was “seconded and lost unanimously.”

Brigham Young presented the name of Elder Willard Richards to serve as Historian for the Church and General Recorder.  John Smith was sustained as the President of the Stake along with his counselors, Isaac Morley and Charles C. Rich.  The High Council was sustained with Samuel Bent as its president.  George Miller was sustained as the president of the High Priest's Quorum along with his counselors.  Joseph Young was sustained as the Senior President of the First Quorum of the Seventy.  Other Presidents of the Seventy were sustained.

George A. Smith expressed concern that Roger Orton,[15] who had been called as one of the seven Presidents a year earlier, still had not stepped forward to serve in his calling.  Brigham Young arose at said, “I say if men will not act and magnify their calling, let more honorable men be appointed.”  It was then moved and sustained that Brother Orton be dropped from this calling.

The conference next sustained the Elder's Quorum presidency, the Bishops, the Teacher's Quorum Presidency, and President Young moved that a quorum of Deacons be selected with a president over them, under the direction of the Presiding Bishops.  This session of the conference was then adjourned until 2 p.m.

In the afternoon, Elder Parley P. Pratt addressed the Saints.  He discussed why the Saints were building houses and a temple even though they planned to leave the city.  “The people of God always were required to make sacrifices, and if we have a sacrifice to make, [I am] in favor of its being something worthy of the people of God.”  Nauvoo would be left as a monument to the people.  “The people must enlarge‑‑in numbers and extend their borders; they cannot always live in one city, nor in one county. . . . In short, this people are fast approaching that point which ancient prophets have long since pointed out as the destiny of the saints of the last days.”

Elder George A. Smith spoke on the same subject.  He looked forward to leaving Nauvoo and finding a place where they could live in peace.  He encouraged the Saints to be united.  “When we were to leave Missouri the saints entered into a covenant not to cease their exertions until every saint who wished to go was removed, which was done.”

President Brigham Young prophesied:  “If you will be faithful to your covenant, I will now prophesy that the great God will shower down means upon this people, to accomplish it [moving all the Saints out of Nauvoo].”

The conference session was closed with prayer by W.W. Phelps. Warren Foote wrote of the day's conference:


We went to Nauvoo to attend Conference which was held in the Temple.  The immense room was crowded with eager listeners.  Our persecutions and present situation were dwelt upon by the Twelve Apostles, and there being no prospect for anything better for the future, it was voted unanimously that the Church en masse move from the United States, where we have had nothing but persecution from the beginning, and go to a country far to the west where we can serve God without being molested by mobs.


Not everyone could attend this conference.  Luman Shurtliff cared for his wife as she became very ill in the late stages of her pregnancy.  He wrote:


She was no easier and no one could tell what the cause of the pain was.  She rolled from side to side in her bed, groaning and screaming, apparently in as great pain as a human being could endure.  I called in two of the most skilled female doctors in the city but they could do nothing for her.  She was in such distress that she could not tell us where it was the worst.


A son, Heber Chase Tippits, was born to Joseph and Amanda Tippits.[16]



History of the Church, 7:457‑66; “Warren Foote Autobiography,” typescript, 72; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:284; “Luman Shurtliff Autobiography,” 65; Helen Mar Whitney, Woman’s Exponent 11:169; Holzapfel, Women of Nauvoo, 150


                       Tuesday, October 7, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The General Conference of the Church reconvened at 10 a.m.  Elder Heber C. Kimball addressed the Saints.  “I am glad the time of our exodus is come; I have looked for it for years.  It is necessary for us to be faithful and humble, and if we listen to counsel we shall prosper. . . . There may be individuals who will look at their pretty houses and gardens and say, `it is hard to leave them'; but I tell you, when we start, you will put on your knapsacks, and follow after us.”  Elder Kimball gave a bold prophecy:  “I will prophesy in the name of Heber C. Kimball, that in five years, we will be as well again off as we are now.”

He mentioned that many of the people had been coming to the Twelve, begging to be in the first company with the Twelve.  Some were worried that the Twelve would leave them behind.  He assured them,


We will be with all of you. . . . When men come in here to divide you, and when the mob came, did we flee?  No!  No!  . . . Let us become passive as clay in the hands of the potter:  if we don't we will be cut from the wheel and thrown back in the mill again, like the Fosters, Higbees, and others.  They want to come into Nauvoo again; but we won't let them, until we have all the good clay out, and have made it into vessels of honor to our Heavenly Father:  then they may come and be ground.


Elder Amasa Lyman was the next speaker.  He remarked that the people were undergoing a change, that they were becoming unified in their interests.  “When they [this people] first heard the gospel, they hailed and cherished it with joy; and they have come up here to receive additional instruction:  yet perhaps, they have made but a limited calculation of how far they would have to go, in obedience and sacrifices, and to how much persecution and suffering they would be subject.”  He testified that the Saints would leave in the spring.  They had outgrown Nauvoo anyway and needed a place to expand.

Elder John Taylor made some remarks in behalf of the suffering poor in the north end of Nauvoo and asked for all to come forward to aid the bishops in supplying these poor families.  Patriarch John Smith appointed four bishops to stand at the door, to take a collection for the benefit of the poor.  The choir sang and the meeting was dismissed until 2 p.m.  All the single men who wanted to travel in the first company or company of the Twelve, were notified to give in their names during the intermission.

At 2 p.m., President Brigham Young came to the stand and dismissed the meeting until the next day because a body of armed men had suddenly entered the city.  All the brethren were requested to go to their homes and prepare for any emergency.  Soon it was determined that there was no real threat, that Major William B. Warren, leading some state troops, had come into the city on business to search for stolen property.  President Young still sent the people home and concluded his remarks with, “Be ye also ready.”

The troops had come into town and surrounded the city cannon which was hidden in some corn fodder.  John Scott would not let any of the troops touch it.  Soon the guard increased and the troops backed down.  Another company of troops found some property that a house-burner had claimed was stolen from him.  Two men were taken into custody.[17]  Charles C. Rich had been worried that the troops were going to try to arrest the Twelve, so he sent word to the temple.  After the people left the temple, the troops left town.

In the evening, the Twelve met at Willard Richards’ home.  They offered up prayers to the Lord that the Governors troops would leave the County and that the Saints would be protected from the ravages of the mob.

During the morning, Sister Eunice Shurtliff delivered a dead child.  Her husband, Luman wrote:  “About 3 o'clock in the afternoon, we saw she was dying in as much pain as ever.  I said to her, ‘Eunice, I am afraid you are going to leave us.’  She replied readily, ‘No, I'm not.’  This was the last word she spoke and in a short time breathed her last.  Thus, on the 7th of October, 1845, I buried my wife Eunice and daughter Lucy Amarilla (her child) in one grave and in one coffin.”[18]

A daughter, Sarah Jane Casper, was born to William and Sarah Casper.[19]  A son, Edmund William Ellsworth, was born to Edmund and Elizabeth Ellsworth.[20]  A son, Samuel Alexander Kelsey, was born to Samuel and Jennet Kelsey.  He died the next day.  A daughter, Mary Emma Stewart, was born to John and Nancy Stewart.


Tiffin, Ohio:

Oliver Cowdery[21] wrote a letter to Brigham Young advising him to seek aid from the United States government and he offered his services as agent to see President Polk on the subject of removal westward if the council desired his assistance.



History of the Church, 7:466‑70, 482; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 16; Heber Kimball Journal in Woman’s Exponent 11:185; “Luman Shurtliff Autobiography,” typescript, 65; “Hosea Stout Diary” typescript, 70-2; “Thomas Bullock Journal,” 24; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle, 185


                    Wednesday, October 8, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The General Conference of the Church continued in the morning.  Brigham Young opened by denouncing those who had been caught stealing the day before.  Sister Lucy Mack Smith, mother of Joseph Smith, wished to address the conference.  She was invited on the stand and spoke for an hour.  She stated that she was truly glad that the Lord had let her see such a large congregation.  She gave a short history of her family and then gave some advise to the parents present.  She warned parents that were accountable for their children's conduct and counseled parents to keep them from idleness.  She advised the Saints “never to do in secret what they would not do in the presence of millions.”

The conference minutes state:


She wished to know of the congregation whether they considered her a mother in Israel (upon which President Brigham Young said:  all who consider Mother Smith as a mother in Israel, signify it by saying yes!‑‑‑‑One universal `yes' rang throughout).  She remarked that it was just eighteen years since Joseph Smith the Prophet had become acquainted with the contents of the plates; and then in a concise manner related over the most prominent points in the early history of her family.


Norton Jacob recorded in his journal:  “She said it was eighteen years ago last Monday since he commenced preaching the gospel, [she] being called upon by Joseph to go and tell Martin Harris and family that he had got the plates and he wanted him to take an alphabet of the characters and carry them to the learned men to decipher.”

She testified:


I feel as though God was vexing this nation a little, here and there, and I feel that the Lord will let Brother Brigham take the people away.  Here, in this city, lay my dead; my husband and children; and if so be the rest of my children go with you, and would to God they may all go, they will not go without me; and if I go, I want my bones brought back in case I die away, and deposited with my husband and children.


President Brigham Young then arose and said “Mother Smith proposes a thing which rejoices my heart:  she will go with us.  I can answer for the authorities of the church; we want her and her children to go with us; and I pledge myself in behalf of the authorities of the church, that while we have anything, they shall share with us.  We have extended the helping hand to Mother Smith.  She has the best carriage in the city and while she lives, shall ride in it when and where she pleases.”  He went on to pledge that Mother Smith's desires would be granted.  The meeting was then adjourned.[22]

At 2 p.m., the conference reconvened.  The choir sang, “The Spirit of God Like a Fire is Burning.”  Elder John Taylor addressed the conference.  Elder Taylor discussed discontinuing printing the Times and Seasons soon.  He said the conference minutes would be published.  He proposed that The Nauvoo Neighbor, which printed information on temporal matters, be discontinued.

Elder Kimball moved that they discontinue the Nauvoo Neighbor after one more issue and that the Times and Seasons continue from time to time, until the current volume was complete.

The next item of business was to appoint committees to sell houses, farms, and lots.  Elder Kimball proposed that school books be printed for educating their children.  W.W. Phelps pointed out that he had been appointed by revelation in 1831 to print books for schools.[23]  The conference sustained the motion to have Brother Phelps do this work.

Elder Kimball proposed that all people, including the Twelve, settle with the Trustees of the Church, so they would not go away in debt to the Lord.  Debts must be settled before endowments could be given in the temple.

Elder George A. Smith expressed concern that too many guns were being fired and powder wasted.


You cannot wake up in the night, but you hear them cracking away.  You can hardly walk the streets, but sometimes a bullet will whistle over your head.  Men say they are afraid their guns won't go off, it is wet; then I am in favor of getting something to draw (the charge from) them; I hope there will be no more firing.  If there was a mob in sight, you have time enough to load your guns and fire on them.  I want the powder and lead saved.


Elder Kimball addressed another problem.  Some people had been shooting their neighbors' cattle which wander into their fields.  “I am ashamed of a man who will do such things.  The man that will destroy his neighbor's property in that way, I will prophesy that the hand of God will be upon him until he makes restitution, and he will not prosper.”  It was moved that any who were found guilty of this crime would be cut off from the Church unless they make restitution.

Brigham Young related with sadness, “Someone, on the Friday following shot my only cow.  I would have given five half eagles to bring her back again.  She was reared by my wife, while I was on my mission to England, and was so gentle that my children could sit under her and milk her and play between her horns without fear of being hurt.”

The General Conference of the Church was adjourned until April 6, 1846.  Hascall Pomeroy wrote to her parents in New England, “O! Such a glorious meeting.”

In the evening, Hosea Stout reported to the Twelve that a mob party had found the body of one of their men who they claimed had been missing, Andrew Daubenheyer.  They said the body was found buried in the bottom of a ditch.  The mob was swearing that the Mormons in a nearby settlement would atone for this death.[24]

James L. Burnham, age thirty-one, died.  Hartley Mercer and Jane Sly were married by James Wait.



History of the Church, 7:470‑81; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 16‑17; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 72; Holzapfel, Women of Nauvoo, 150


                      Thursday, October 9, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was turning colder.  In the morning, members of the Twelve met for prayer in the temple.  They discussed plans to sell Nauvoo property.

The Seventies Quorums met together in conference.  They were addressed by President Joseph Young who counseled the brethren to “pay strict attention to the call of their presidents and strongly exhorted them to pray unto the Lord day and night, and trust in him for deliverance.”

It was learned that General Hardin has pledged to the mob that he would go to Nauvoo with his troops and either arrest Orrin Porter Rockwell and some others, or he would “unroof every house in Nauvoo.”  A force of three hundred had volunteered to go with him.

In the evening, brethren met in the temple for prayer.  They prayed for the missionaries in the east, in the South Pacific Islands, and among the Indians in the west.  They asked the Lord to frustrate the plans of their enemies, to cause confusion and disorder in their ranks.  They asked that the sick be healed and that union be preserved in the Church.  They asked that the temple and font may be finished and dedicated, that the Saints could obtain their ordinances.

Also in the evening, many had a wonderful time attending a concert that was held in the music hall.

Norton Jacob wrote:


This night at 12 o'clock I was called to come immediately to the temple.  Colonel Scott and twelve or fifteen others were there.  We went to work and prepared a place behind some large piles of lumber and stored away our four pieces of artillery, having heard that General Hardin’s posse were coming in from Carthage to demand all the persons that were in command of the Sheriff's posse in the late disturbances that if they were not given up they would immediately make war upon the city.


A son, Mathew Scott Mikesell, was born to Hyrum and Ann Mikesell.[25]



History of the Church, 7:481; Heber Kimball Journal in Woman’s Exponent, 11:185, “Hosea Stout Diary”. 2:73; “Thomas Bullock Journal,” 25; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 17‑8; Hallwas, Cultures in Conflict, 279


                        Friday, October 10, 1846

Nauvoo, Illinois:

In the morning, news arrived that troops were coming from Quincy.  It was reported that a mob was with them who swore that they would shoot Sheriff Jacob Backenstos for the killing of Frank Worrell.[26]  Albert P. Rockwood[27] issued orders to Hosea Stout to have a cohort ready to be called into action at a moment's notice.  They would rally when a flag was hoisted at the temple.

Later, orders were given to have men stationed in various parts of the city.  They were exhorted to pray to the Lord for deliverance from their enemies.  Hosea Stout wrote:  “From all appearance our enemies were determined to fall upon us . . . we were determined not to let them come in and arrest and take away our men to be murdered in cold blood as had been done.”

Norton Jacobs wrote: “From the tower of the temple with good glasses we were enabled to overlook the prairies for 15 or 20 miles and not having seen any movement of men during the day.”

No troops arrived, but the city was on alert throughout the night.

A daughter, Esther Coltrin, was born to Graham and Harriet Coltrin.  A son, Hyrum Smith Sanders, was born to Moses and Amanda Sanders.



“Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:73‑5; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 18


                     Saturday, October 11, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

Everything was calm in the city during the morning.  Hosea Stout stood ready and reflected on the impending danger.


       Should they [the mob] attempt to arrest me, I felt determined to sell my life, life as dear as I could and try and convince our enemies that the blood of the Saints was not as easily shed as was our Prophets and Patriarch.  I felt that I had served my maker as well as I knew and was willing to hide and wait the full time of the Lord.  But in the event of a battle I was resolved to come forth as a lion from his thicket and roar upon our enemies as did the people of God always and trust to him for the result.  So I am composed and as yet fear no evil.


By afternoon, it was determined that no troops or mob was heading for Nauvoo.

Bishop George Miller, Sheriff Backenstos, and others returned safely from Quincy.  Sheriff Backenstos was free on $3,000 bail, to await his trial for the death of Frank Worrell.

In the evening, the Twelve met at Elder Taylor's for a council meeting. Brigham Young was not feeling well, and did not attend.  They worked on the Conference Minutes and an “Epistle to the Church” scattered abroad through the United States. The Saints were asked to prepare for the exodus from the country.


You will perceive from the foregoing interesting Minutes of the General Conference, just held in the Temple in this place not only the unparalleled union of the great body of the saints convened, but also that a crisis of extraordinary and thrilling interests has arrived.  The exodus of the nation of the only true Israel from these United States to a far distant region of the west, where bigotry, intolerance and insatiable oppression lose their power over them‑‑‑forms a new epoch, not only in the history of the Church, but of this nation. . . .

It is our design to remove all the saints as early next spring as the first appearance of thrifty vegetation.  In the meantime the utmost diligence of all the brethren at this place and abroad will be requisite for our removal, and to complete the unfinished part of the Lord's House, preparatory to dedication by the next General Conference.  The font and other parts of the Temple will be in readiness in a few days to commence the administration of holy ordinances of endowments, for which the faithful have long diligently labored and fervently prayed, desiring above all things to see the beauty of the Lord and inquire in his holy Temple.  We therefore invite the saints abroad generally so to arrange their affairs as to come with their families in sufficient time to receive their endowments, and aid in giving the last finish to the House of the Lord previous to the great emigration of the church in the spring. . . .

Wake up, wake up, dear brethren, we exhort you, from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, and from Canada to Florida, to the present glorious emergency in which the God of heaven has placed you to prove your faith by your works, preparatory to a rich endowment in the Temple of the Lord, and the obtaining of promises and deliverances, and glories for yourselves and your children and your dead.


The epistle was signed by Brigham Young.  A “P.S.” was added:  “Let all wagons that are hereafter built be constructed to the track of five feet width from center to center.  Families may properly travel to this place during winter in their wagons.  There are said to be many good locations for settlements on the Pacific, especially at Vancouver's Island near the mouth of the Columbia.”

A daughter, Lucy Elvira Holmes, was born to Jonathan and Elvira Holmes.[28]  A daughter, Susan Mosely, was born to William and Mary Mosely.

New York City, New York:

An issue of the New York Messenger was published.  Orson Pratt gave counsel to the many sisters who were married to non-member husbands.  The sisters deeply wanted to go with the Saints to Nauvoo.  Elder Pratt wrote:  “Be Patient, and not over anxious.  Use every means in your power to persuade your husbands to embrace the truth and gather with the saints.  Be kind and affectionate, tender hearted and submissive, and withal exercise faith and prayer in their behalf; perhaps their hearts may be softened.”  Elder Pratt also wrote to the Saints in Philadelphia.  He explained to them that their leader, Jedediah M. Grant, had been called back to Nauvoo, to attend to his duties in the Seventies Quorum.  “But be of good cheer brethren, and pray for his successor, that a double portion of the spirit that rested upon your former president, may rest upon him.”



History of the Church, 7:481; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:76; “Thomas Bullock Journal,” 25; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle, 185


                       Sunday, October 12, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

A meeting was held at the temple.  Heber C. Kimball and Parley P. Pratt spoke.  Additional Captains of Hundreds were appointed totaling twenty‑five, including: 1, Brigham Young and the Twelve; 2, Samuel Bent; 3, Alpheus Cutler; 4, Isaac Morley; 5, Shadrach Roundy; 6, Reynolds Cahoon; 7, Daniel Spencer; 8, Peter Haws; 9, Joseph Fielding; 10, John D. Parker; 11, David Fullmer; 12, Charles Shumway; 13, Charles C. Rich; 14, Jedediah M. Grant; 15, Erastus Snow; 16, Benjamin F. Johnson; 17, Andrew H. Perkins; 18, George Coulson; 19, David Evans; 20, Daniel C. Davis; 21, Jonathan H. Hale; 22, George P. Dykes, (in Ottawa, Illinois); 23, Mephibosheth Sirrine, (in Michigan); 24, Hosea Stout; 25, William Huntington.

Hosea Stout was informed that he had been appointed as a Captain of Hundred.  Brigham Young told him that the “old police” who he was in charge, would be assigned to his company.

Daniel S. Miles,[29] one of the First Presidents of the Seventies died at the age of seventy-three in the home of Josiah Butterfield.  He had become sick during the previous Sunday meeting.

Samuel Henry Alexander married Mary Virginia Marsteller by Jeremiah Hatch.  A daughter, Mary Ann Burnham was born to James and Mary Burnham.[30]


Voree, Wisconsin

James J. Strang, who professed to be the true successor of Joseph Smith, launched an offensive attack against Brigham Young’s leadership.  His followers agreed to start a publication to inform the Mormons that Strang was the true prophet, had found some plates, and had translated them.



“Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:77; “Thomas Bullock Journal,” 25; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:192, 4:260; Van Noord, King of Beaver Island, 37                            

                      Monday, October 13, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The night was frosty and leaves were falling from the trees during the day.

Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball met with two Indians who were members of the Church, Joseph Herring and Lewis Dana.  Joseph Herring was ordained an Elder.  The brethren spoke with these men about Indian customs and traits.

In the evening, Sheriff Jacob B. Backenstos and several others went to the home of Heber C. Kimball, where they enjoyed listening to tunes played on the piano by Sister Pitchforth.

A son, Rais Bell Cassen R Cahoon, was born to Reynolds and Lucina Cahoon.[31]


Heber Kimball Journal in Woman’s Exponent, 11:185; “Thomas Bullock Journal,” 26


                      Tuesday, October 14, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

It was a beautiful day in the city. Thomas Bullock met with William Clayton to go over Brother Bullock's minutes of General Conference.

Major William B. Warren came into the city with a detachment of state troops.  The brethren prayed “that they might not be permitted to do any injury to any of the saints; nor to interrupt our peace.”  The troops only stayed in the city for a short time.  Hosea Stout wrote:  “Hearing that some of the governor's 'Mobitia' had come in town again I went to see General [Charles C.] Rich but he was in the country.  I then went . . . met with the company in the cellar of the [Nauvoo] temple to organize and make some preparations for our contemplated journey next spring.”

Elder Lewis Dana[32] was sealed to Mary Gont by Brigham Young.



History of the Church, 7:482; Heber Kimball Journal in Woman’s Exponent, 11:185; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:78





                   Wednesday, October 15, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

A very severe frost fell over night.  Leaves were falling off of the trees fast.  Brigham Young received an “abusive” letter from William Smith.

In the morning, Heber C. Kimball received a letter from Sheriff Jacob B. Backenstos requesting an interview.  Elder Kimball wrote:



At two o'clock, I met J. B. Backenstos at his room in the mansion. . . . He then and there gave me his mind and views concerning the religion we professed to believe, he firmly and positively believed it to be the truth, and he intended to embrace it by going forward in the waters of baptism soon, and he would go with us the whole extent to the expense of his life and all he possessed.


Sheriff Jacob Backenstos issued a proclamation regarding the killing of Franklin A. Worrell that was published this day in the Warsaw Signal.  He was driving a carriage from Warsaw to Carthage when several riders began to chase him.


The chase lasted for a distance of about two miles, when I fortunately over‑took three men with teams.  I immediately informed them that armed men were pursuing me, evidently to take my life.  I summoned them as a posse to aid me in resisting them.  I dismounted and took my position in the road, with pistol in hand.  I commanded them (the mobbers) to stop, when one of them held his musket in a shooting attitude, whereupon one of my posse fired, and it is believed, took effect on one of the lawless banditti.  We remained and stood our ground, prepared for the worst, for about ten minutes.  The mobbers, retreating some little distance, made no further assault, but finally retreated.  I then made my way to the city of Nauvoo, where I am at this time.  (Sept 16).[33]


Parley P. Pratt married his seventh wife, Sarah Houston.  A son, Alvin Winegar, was born to Alvin and Mary Winegar.[34]



Heber Kimball Journal in Woman’s Exponent, 11:185; “Thomas Bullock Journal,” 26; Warsaw Signal, October 15, 1845; Hallwas, Cultures in Conflict, 275


                     Thursday, October 16, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was fine.  Hosea Stout met with John Scott to discuss fitting out their company.  Thomas Bullock spent the day copying letters and affidavits about house burning incidents.


“Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:78; “Thomas Bullock Journal,” 26-7


                        Friday, October 17, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

Elder Orson Hyde returned from the east with four to five thousand yards of “topsail Russia duck” canvas that had been purchased for a tabernacle, but would now be used for tents and wagon covers.

Brigham Young wrote to James Arlington Bennet,[35] inviting him to come to Nauvoo and make arrangement to go west with the Church.

At 2 p.m., the Twelve met at Heber C. Kimball's home.  The High Council met for the last time (officially) in Nauvoo,



History of the Church, 7:482; Heber C. Kimball Journal in Woman’s Exponent, 11:185   

                     Saturday, October 18, 1844

Nauvoo, Illinois:

Hosea Stout met with his company at 1 p.m. at the Masonic Hall.  They made more preparation to fit out their company.  Thomas Bullock was feeling quite sick.  He went to Dr. John Bernhisel's[36] for some medicine.



“Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:79; “Thomas Bullock Journal,” 27; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:723


                       Sunday, October 19, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

Elder Hyde preached at the temple. He shared with the Saints his experiences in the east obtaining the canvas.

Norton Jacob wrote:


After Brother Hyde talked to us Brother Taylor read to the congregation two letters written by William Smith‑‑he having gone to Galena, in which he speaks evil of the Saints at Nauvoo and threatens Brigham Young.  After the reading Brother Brigham made some remarks showing the folly of his course, yea the wickedness of his conduct in trying to injure his friends.  It was then unanimously resolved that William Smith be cut off from the Church and given into the hands of the Lord.


At 4 p.m., Brigham Young's company met at the temple.  Captains of fifties and tens were appointed.  The brethren were instructed to parch bushels of corn, dry pumpkins, and make bags for clothing to take west.

William Clayton dealt with some difficulties regarding some hurt feelings while working with Bishop Newel K. Whitney.


As a general thing the bishops have treated me as well as any other man but I confess they treat me more like a servant than a brother.  I have endeavored under all circumstances to take as little notice as possible of all these things but they sometimes force themselves on me and gall my feelings. . . . I  respect Bishop Whitney as I do my own father, but this does not make me insensible of feeling to see so much of what I consider to be unjust partiality.


A daughter, Sarah Elizabeth Packer, was born to Jonathan and Angelene Packer.[37]


Liverpool, England:

Elder Leonard W. Hardy, a missionary in England, sailed for home.  Before he left, Elder Hardy requested Elder Wilford Woodruff to give him a blessing.  Elder Woodruff consented, and in the blessing told him that he should arrive home to his family and friends in safety.  He told him also he should spend his last days as one of the leading bishops in the land of Zion.  At the close of the blessing Elder Hardy remarked:  "Brother Woodruff, I always thought you were a man of truth.  I can comprehend arriving home in safety, but I cannot comprehend being a leading Bishop in Zion."  And he said it came nearer trying his faith than anything that ever happened to him in the flesh.  Elder Woodruff told him to wait and see, and if it did not come to pass, he would acknowledge that the spirit that dictated it was not the spirit of truth.[38]



History of the Church, 7:482; Heber C. Kimball Journal Woman’s Exponent, 11:185; “Thomas Bullock Journal,” 27; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle 187; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 19; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia


                      Monday, October 20, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

Norton Jacob recorded:  “On the morning of the 20th I put my name in Brother M. Serrine's company to go West.  He was just starting for Michigan to gather up the brethren and appointed me one of a committee of three to attend to the business of the company in his absence.  In the evening I met with the company it was agreed that I should go the next day in search of timber for wagons.”  Hosea Stout wrote:  “This morning a lot of teams met at my house to go with some hands to cut draw some timber for cribs, etc.  for grain.”

In the evening, the Twelve met in council at John Taylor's home.  James Arlington Bennet had arrived in the city.  He met with the Twelve and expressed his views that the Church should not leave Nauvoo.  He believed that the Saints should stay and fight.  William Clayton commented in his journal, “I should judge him to be a very ambitious and aspiring man.”



History of the Church, 7:483; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 19; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:79


                      Tuesday, October 21, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

Early in the morning, General Hardin’s troops marched up Mulholland Street on their way back to Carthage.  They were singing and shouting, using “imprudent language to grate on the feelings of the Saints.”

During the day, Brigham Young gave General James Arlington Bennet a tour of the temple. He was very pleased with it.[39]

Brigham Young received a letter from the sheriff, Jacob B. Backenstos in Carthage informing him that the judge there “has so far decidedly shown himself in favor of the mob faction, and has so far disgusted very many of the respectable persons at court, I confess I am perfectly displeased with such judicial `humbugs'.”  The court started a session on the day before, and a grand jury that was previously chosen was set aside because of a complaint made by Michael Barnes Jr., one of the known murderers of Joseph and Hyrum Smith.  A new grand jury was chosen by men who favored the mob.

Willard Richards sent for Hosea Stout. He asked Brother Stout to send a policeman to the council meeting that day because General Bennet was to be there. Also, since it was a court week, people were likely to try to disturb them.

In the evening, the Twelve and others met at John Taylor's home for prayers. They wrote a letter to Judge James Ralston inviting him to come to Nauvoo. Mr. Ralston had said that he thought he could bring one hundred Catholic families to Nauvoo, to buy the Saints’ properties.[40]


St. Louis, Missouri:

The Missouri Reporter stated that William Smith, the brother of Joseph Smith, was in St. Louis and had been “compelled to flee Nauvoo.”



Clark, Messages of the First Presidency, 1:266; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; History of the Church, 7:483; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:79‑80; Stanley B. Kimball, BYU Studies, 13:4:503; Lyndon W. Cook, BYU Studies, 19:2:247


                   Wednesday, October 22, 1845

Liverpool, England:

The Proclamation of the Twelve Apostles, written by Wilford Woodruff, originally issued in the United States in April, was published in the Millennial Star.[41] “It constitutes one of the great prophetic utterances of the last dispensation, outlining as it does future developments of the Kingdom of God in both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The prophetic proclamation addressed to all the Kings of the World; the President of the United States; the Governors of the several States; and to the Rulers and People of all Nations covers some of the preparations that are expected to be made throughout the world as a preface to the Second Coming of the Lord Jesus Christ to reign on the earth.”


Nauvoo, Illinois:

It was another cold day. Hosea Stout and others met at the Masonic Hall in the morning and then left to go across the river after wagon timber. They were able to start a wagon shop.

General Bennet and Mr Booth (the editor of the Quincy Herald) met at Willard Richards’ house and talked about the Saints moving west. Mr Booth mentioned that a number of (non‑Mormon) Quincy residents were considering moving west with the Saints. Mr. Booth offered to publish in his paper anything to help the saints to sell their property.

Brigham Young received a letter from Edward Warren of Boston, portraying the Bay of San Francisco as one well adapted for a place for the Saint to settle.

In the evening, the Twelve met at Elder John Taylor's house for a council meeting. They read a letter from Reuben McBride[42] (a member in Kirtland), stating that apostates (Rigdonites) were doing everything that could be done to injure the Saints. They had broken into the Kirtland Temple and had taken it over. They were also trying to take possession of the church farm.

A son, Edward Lucius Whiting, was born to Edwin and Elizabeth Whiting.[43]


Carthage, Illinois:

Jesse B. Harmon and John Lytle, who were charged with destroying the Expositor press, were tried before Judge Norman H. Purple. The judge decided in his charge to the jury, that the defendants acted under the municipal authorities of Nauvoo.  They acted without authority, and if it could be proven that they had taken any part in the destruction of the press, they were to be found guilty. The main witness could not clearly identify the policeman who had destroyed the press. The jury brought in a verdict of “not guilty” and the defendants were acquitted. The official History of the Church states: “Thus were the words of the Prophet Joseph fulfilled, who told the police (when they reported to him that they had abated the nuisance) that not one of them should ever be harmed for what they had done, and that if there were any expenses consequent he would foot the bill.”



Improvement Era 52:149, 176‑177 (March, 1949); Clark, Messages of the First Presidency, 1:252; History of the Church, 7:485; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:80; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 4:690; Esshom, Pioneers and Prominent Men of Utah, 1243

                     Thursday, October 23, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was “fine.”  A detachment of the governor's troops came in from Carthage to search for a counterfeit money press. They searched Lucien Woodworth's house but couldn't find anything. The Nauvoo Neighbor mocked this effort: “On Thursday morning last, (for the ninety‑ninth time) notice was given that the Governor's troops, or Spanishly speaking, Don Quixote, Sancho Panza, and a few Viajantes . . . were out in search of adventures. About 1 p.m. they arrived in the city, and attacked not a windmill, but a dwelling house.”

Hosea Stout and others were called to attend the council meeting at John Taylor's House that evening. It was decided to call out the troops to guard the nearby country to protect it from the “depredations of the men whom the governor had sent here to maintain the 'Supremacy of the Law.'” As late as 11:49 p.m., word was being passed around Nauvoo for men to meet at the temple at 7 a.m.

Orson Spencer, with the sanction of the Twelve, wrote an angry letter to the governor of Illinois, Governor Ford. Orson Spencer had earlier in the year received assurances from Governor Ford that he would never use his power to oppress or exterminate the saints. In his October 23 letter, Orson wrote: “Has Governor Ford become another Boggs?” He recounted how the governor's troops have protected the mob as they murder and burn homes. He stated, “The only difference between your troops and the mob is like the difference between a keg of arsenic and a keg of choice flour fatally flavored with arsenic. The mob we dare to resist where they are purely mob: but the state force, though equally fatal we are obliged to submit to because of legal authority.”  He closed his letter by pleading, “Sir, for humanity's sake, speedily withdraw these troops, and allow us peace long enough to attend to our sick and prepare for a general departure in the spring.”

Governor Ford wrote a reply, a week later:


Sir: I return your letter of the 23rd instant as not being respectful: as containing undeserved censure and as being in many particulars false and libellous: When were the Mormon people exterminated by my order? It is acknowledged on all hands that there are some thieves in your city as in all other cities. These your people say, you have no power to restrain and punish for want of a city government and court. If you cannot restrain them I can and will. This is not extermination, or following in the footsteps of Governor Boggs. I am very respectfully Your obedient servant, [Signed] THOMAS FORD.


A son, Francis Boggs, was born to Francis and Evelina Boggs.[44]

Camp Creek, Illinois:

Earlier in the week, part of the mob went to Nathan Bigelow's house and ordered him to leave before Thursday because they were coming to burn his house. He sent his son to Nauvoo, asking for advice. His son was told to go to Carthage and make the matter known to Major Warren. There, he was told that the state troops were away and there wasn't anyone else that could help. He was advised to tell his father to defend his house and ask his neighbors for help.

On this day, Nathan's son still had not returned to Camp Creek. After Major Warren consulted with the state attorney, he sent five of his men to Camp Creek. Lieutenant Charles W. Everett was in charge and he did not know the way to the house, which was about four miles from La Harpe. They became lost and did not arrive until 11 p.m.  After they tied their horses, Lieutenant Everett went straight to the door and tried to enter without knocking. Brother Bigelow asked who it was, but did not get an answer. He thought it was one of the mob. Lieutenant Everett opened the door and Brother Bigelow fired his pistol loaded with buckshot. He then shot him with a musket in the hip. Everett called out, “Do not shoot me to pieces, we are not a mob‑‑but have come to protect you.”  The other troops came in and Brother Bigelow discovered his mistake. He exclaimed, “In God's name, why did you not tell me so before?”  He made a fire and took Lt. Everett into his care during the night.



General James Arlington Bennet was in Carthage, apparently trying to mediate between the Saints and the mob. Heber C. Kimball records that he was “was hissed out of Carthage.”



History of the Church, 7:485, 502‑505; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:80‑1; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 19; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Quincy Whig, 29 Oct 1845; Nauvoo Neighbor, Oct 29, 1845; Heber C. Kimball Journal in Woman’s Exponent, 11:185; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 3:322


                        Friday, October 24, 1845

Carthage, Illinois:

In the morning, Nathan Bigelow was brought as a prisoner to Carthage for shooting Lt. Everett the previous evening.[45]  In court, the mob was very active. Witnesses were brought in and examined before the grand jury regarding Sheriff Backenstos' involvement with the killing of Frank A. Worrell. In the afternoon, about forty witnesses appeared in Carthage to enter their complaints against the house‑burners for arson, larceny and other crimes. They knocked at the grand jury room door, asking to be heard, and pled with individual jurors to hear their complaints. But nothing could be done. The grand jury had decided that no evidence should be heard against any of the Anti‑Mormons, whether for murder, burning houses, or other activities.


Nauvoo, Illinois:

It was another cold day. In the morning about 8 a.m., a large group of men assembled at the parade ground near the temple. Hosea Stout took a company toward Carthage and stopped on a large mound about half way there. J.D. Parker took a company and went in the direction of Camp Creek. Theodore Turley went down the river to protect that part of the country. Others went out by fours onto the prairie. The whole country was guarded. The men had an “entertaining time” doing this. At about 3 p.m., Hosea Stout brought his company back to Nauvoo, dismissing the men at 5 p.m.

At 5 p.m., a council meeting was again held at the home of John Taylor. Brigham Young was somewhat miffed because the Council had to sit in the home without a fire. The situation regarding Nathan Bigelow was discussed and they all felt that the Lord would free Brother Bigelow. Prayers were offered in his behalf. The Council decided that Emma Smith could have all the wood she wanted off of church land. It was also decided that an agency would be established near the river to receive and take care of the tithing grain during the winter, which would then be taken with them when would leave Nauvoo in the spring. John E. Page was appointed to serve on the agency. Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and some of the police later went to the Hall to attend to some business.

A daughter, Minnie Elizabeth Carlson, was born to John and Elvira Carlson.[46]  A son, Charles Harper Moor, was born to Thomas and Mahala Moor.



History of the Church, 7:484‑6; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:81; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; Roberts, Black, Membership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints: 1830‑1848


                     Saturday, October 25, 1845

Nauvoo Illinois:

The weather continued to be pleasant.  In the morning at 7 a.m., Hosea Stout and John Scott stationed themselves at the mound, halfway to Carthage, and sent a few men four miles north and south to detect any hostile movements toward Nauvoo.  They again had a “joyful time of it.”

At about 3 p.m. Major Warren, Judge Purple, and others headed toward the city with a detachment of troops. On the way, they noticed Hosea Stout's company and demanded to know why there were there. They told him nothing except that they were there to convey news between Carthage and Nauvoo. Major Warren became very angry and asked why they wore sidearms. He was told by Hosea Stout that he always wore one, ever since Joseph and Hyrum were murdered while under the protection of the governor's troops. This of course angered Warren even more and he carefully counted how many men were there and left.

When Major Warren arrived at Nauvoo, he demanded an explanation for the fifteen or twenty men he saw on the prairie. At the Masonic Hall, Brigham Young explained clearly why they were there and Major Warren went into a rage and declared he would put the county under martial law on Monday. Elder Taylor gave a “spirited” reply regarding the foul treachery of the governor's protection. He accused them of being nothing more than a “legalized mob.”  He said:  “We lack confidence in the governor's troops under your command while hundreds of murderers, robbers and house‑burners roam at large unwhipped of justice.  We shall take measures to protect ourselves.”  Elder Orson Hyde tried to calm the tempers and soon nerves were calmed.[47]

During the day, the steamer Sarah Ann passed up the river with apostates, Lyman E. Johnson,[48] and Dr. Robert Foster[49] on board. When the boat landed, Brother Robert Jackson Redding was standing nearby and talked with Lyman Johnson about his father. Dr. Foster had a number of men from the boat try to haul Brother Redding on board and kidnap him.  Brother Redding knocked the first man down and a few of the brethren ran to help him. With sticks and stones they soon drove the whole crew on board. After the boat quickly left, Dr. Foster shot his pistol at the brethren, but no one was hurt except a brother who was cut on the back of his neck from a stone.

At 4 p.m., Almon W. Babbitt brought word to Nauvoo that the grand jury refused to hear their testimony regarding the house‑burners. On this day, Brother Enos Curtis made the following affidavit:


On or about the eighteenth day of October A. D. 1845, in the Morley Settlement in said county he saw two houses and three stables burning and also saw two mobbers armed with guns going away from the same. And the deponent further saith that on Monday the twenty‑first inst. he saw another house burning, said to belong to the widow Boss containing her potatoes and other vegetables.


In the evening, the Council met at Elder Taylor's home. They prayed that the Lord would soften Major Warren's heart, that martial law would not be declared. And if not, that the Lord would not allow him to bring trouble upon the Saints. Brigham Young did not look well that evening.


Carthage, Illinois:

Witnesses were brought in and examined before the grand jury regarding the Sheriff Backenstos case.  At about 11 a.m., the grand jury came into court and presented a bill against Sheriff Backenstos for the murder of Frank Worrell, and also several bills against the Twelve.  The court adjourned until Monday when Sheriff Backenstos was to be tried. Judge Purple then went to Nauvoo with Major Warren, intending to arrest the Twelve.


New York City, New York:

In the New York Messenger, Orson Pratt published a letter to the Saints in the eastern and middle states.  He informed them of the official decision to leave Nauvoo.  “This wholesale banishment of the Saints from this American Republic will no doubt be one of the grandest and most glorious events, yet witnessed in the history of this Church.”  He proclaimed that this would be a fulfilment of prophecies both in the Book of Mormon and in modern revelations.  The Saints in the east were desirous to obtain their endowment in the temple.  He explained that the temple was almost complete enough to permit hundreds of Saints to receive their ordinances during the winter.  He explained, “But if the saints are to be driven from Nauvoo and from the Temple, as soon as it is finished, or even before, some weak minded saint may inquire, why the Lord should command us to build him a house, and then suffer us to be immediately driven from it?  He pointed to a revelation in the “Book of Covenants”: “. . .I command you again to build a house to my name, even in this place, that you may prove yourselves unto me that ye are faithful in all things whatsoever I command you, that I may bless you, and crown you with honor, immortality, and eternal life.” (D&C 124:55)



History of the Church, 7:486‑8, 494; “Hosea Stout Diary” typescript, 2:82‑3; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:9; Watson, The Orson Pratt Journals, 303-05


                       Sunday, October 26, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

At 7 a.m., men gathered again at the parade grounds, but were told not to assemble that day.  In the morning, Bishop George Miller gave Judges Purple and Ralston a tour of the temple.  At 8 a.m. the seventies met in the temple and organized the 31st Quorum, with Amos P. Rogers as the president.  Many of the Saints gathered at the temple for the Sunday meeting at 10 a.m. Elders Hyde and Pratt spoke on the subject of leaving for the west.  The meeting concluded at noon.

An apostate, Oliver Olney, published in the Warsaw Signal an attack against the Church and its leaders.    He claimed that a group of Mormon recently broke up the court in Carthage.  He wrote about Major Warren’s visit to Nauvoo the day before.  His article included:


The Judge of the court in company with some of the lawyers of the county, visited Nauvoo to inquire the reason of the breaking up of the court in such a manner, but received nothing satisfactory, except a tirade from John Taylor, one of the twelve, which, he the judge carried away rankling and festering in his own bosom.


In the afternoon, the Council of the Twelve met at Elder John Taylor's home. Orson Spencer again drafted a letter to Governor Thomas Ford on behalf of the Twelve.  The letter recounted the burning of homes a week earlier and the threats on Camp Creek. He noted that Major Warren had not provided sufficient protection. He recounted the experience with Major Warren the day before and that Warren had vowed to put the whole county under martial law on Monday. He informed the governor that “if the major should impose martial law upon the county, it would be a matter greatly to be deplored.”  He let the governor know that if this did happen, it would obstruct their plans to leave in the spring and he asked him to withdraw the troops. He mentioned that some of the house burners are in the posse of state troops. Bishop George Miller and E.A. Bedell (the justice of the peace) left at 8 p.m. to take the letter to Governor Ford. The “night was dark” so they lost their way twice.  They finally reached Crooked Creek where they stayed overnight. Brigham Young talked with Judge Ralston regarding selling their properties to the Catholics.  The judge encouraged President Young to sell to and said he would use his influence with the Catholics.  A council meeting was held at John Taylor's home that evening.

A daughter, Julia Ann Vilate Young, was born to Joseph and Jane Young.



History of the Church, 7:489‑90; “Hosea Stout Diary” 2:83; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; Thomas Bullock Journal; “William Huntington autobiography,” typescript, 41; Hallwas, Cultures in Conflict, 315


                      Monday, October 27, 1845

Macedonia, Illinois:

Brother Bedell and Bishop Miller reached Macedonia early, took breakfast with William G. Perkins, changed horses and went on their journey to deliver the letter to the governor.


Carthage, Illinois:

Sheriff Jacob Backenstos appeared in court, ready with his lawyer, and desired an immediate trail. He was able to obtain a change of venue to Peoria for a trial in five weeks. He was released on $3000 bail. The sheriff was in good health and spirits.  Many of the Saints worried that the mob would try to assassinate the sheriff, so they stayed very close to him.  The court adjourned until next May.


Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather again was fine. Many men continued to work on getting timber for wagons and several wagon shops were opened. At 4 p.m., Almon W. Babbitt brought word to Nauvoo from Carthage that a Dr. Abiather Williams testified before the judges of Iowa that the Twelve made bogus bills at his house in Iowa. They demanded that the governor of Illinois arrest the Twelve. This is why Major Warren had come to Nauvoo on Saturday, but he “chickened out” in making the arrests. He had intended to come with more troops on the next day (Tuesday).  The brethren expressed their feelings together that the Lord would overrule this matter for the good of the Saints.  They were very thankful to the Lord for the protection that they received on Saturday.  The Twelve decided to leave their homes on this night so that if the posse came during the night, there would be no danger.

Sometime during the month of October, Eliza R. Snow wrote her famed poem, “My Father in Heaven” which later was put to music as “O My Father.”


New York City, New York

General James Bennet, probably now back in New York, wrote a letter on this day to the New York Sun which was later printed in the newspaper. He told paper that the church would be leaving the United States and would become a mighty people.  He stated that within one year they would number two hundred thousand in the Bay of San Francisco. “There are already organized twenty‑five companies of one hundred families each, to be filled up during the winter, for the march to California. Each family of ten persons will have a wagon drawn by four oxen, and supplied with everything necessary for the journey.”  He boasted that they wished him to come with him “and I presume, if I did, I would have the first military command in the camp of the saints. They certainly require a leader with a military and mathematical head, and one who has seen active service; but I am too old to settle in the West.”



History of the Church, 7:494; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 19; “Luman Shurtliff Autobiography,” typescript, 65; Times and Seasons, 6:1039, 1052; “William Huntington autobiography,” typescript, 41


                      Tuesday, October 28, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The Twelve remained in hiding all day.  In the morning, other Church leaders met at John Taylor's home to pray.  In the afternoon, Brigham Young was notified through Sheriff Backenstos that Major Warren wished to speak to him. Major Warren and his troops had arrived in the city and were staying at the Mansion House.  At 3 p.m., Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball met with him at Willard Richards’ home.  Major Warren's heart had been softened. He no longer intended to arrest the Twelve because he realized that it would hinder them in their plans to move west.  He told President Young that he was going to Springfield on the next day in part to get his friends and relatives to come to Nauvoo to purchase farms from the Saints. Major Warren was relieved when President Young told him that the Twelve held no official office in the city or the county, that they only governed the matters pertaining to the Church. He left at 5 p.m. with pretty good feelings.

Truman Angell[50] writes on this date that the work on the Nauvoo Temple was progressing very rapidly. It was fully enclosed and the inside work was taking place. The attic was finished and being made ready for the endowment, while work on the lower rooms, basement, and lower hall was going on.


Springfield, Illinois:

Bishop Miller and Brother Bedell traveled all the previous night, by the light of brush fires on the prairie.  In the morning, they delivered the affidavits to Governor Ford.  He read to them letters from different parts of the state insisting on government troops maintaining order during the winter.  The brethren urged him strongly to disband the forces stationed in Hancock County because they were a greater curse on the Saints than the mob.  Governor Ford was friendly and said privately that he thought the whole state was a mob and could not be trusted. Their interview lasted three hours. He concluded that he would go to Hancock County and take a conciliatory course of action so as to prevent a collision until the saints left in the spring. Then he would bring the house‑burners and murderers to justice and hang every one of them. They conversed with other Springfield citizens who were very sympathetic with the injustices happening in Hancock County.  They expressed sorrow that Sheriff Backenstos did not kill five hundred of them instead of just one.


St. Louis, Missouri:

The St. Louis American reported on this day that William Smith, the excommunicated brother of the Prophet, was to lecture in the Mechanics Institute on Third Street on “the corruption of the Twelve in Nauvoo.”



Heber C. Kimball Journal in Woman’s Exponent, 11:185; History of the Church, 7:492‑3; Stanley B. Kimball, BYU Studies, 13:4:503; Thomas Bullock Journal; “Truman Angell autobiography,” in Pioneer Heritage 10:200; “William Huntington autobiography,” typescript, 41


                   Wednesday, October 29, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was “dull.”  Brigham Young was still in hiding, but the city was peaceful and many of the emigrating companies were making rapid progress obtaining timber for their wagons.  Brigham Young was visited by Brothers Henry G. Sherwood and John S. Fullmer. Brothers  Sherwood and Fullmer had just returned from their mission to the west, to visit the Emmett Expedition.[51]

Brothers Fullmer and Sherwood gave their report to Brigham Young who was hiding at Albert P. Rockwood's home. They also gave him some interesting information regarding the best route to travel west.[52]

Also discussed in the afternoon, was a rumor that William Smith, the excommunicated brother of the prophet, was working with others to influence the president of the United States to prevent the Saints from going west.  It was reported that he had already written to the president on the subject, claiming that the Twelve were guilty of treason. The New York Sun later ran an editorial based on the accusations being voiced by William Smith. The article stated that he said the Church leaders, “with hate in their hearts” were planning to move west to build up a tyranny, purge their people of all American feeling, enrich themselves from the toil of their people, and set up an independent government. The editorial called on the government to take action:


With angry and fanatical feelings such as the Mormons would carry with them, our own citizens would find them troublesome customers, let the tide of emigration be diverted to Oregon or to California. . . . The United States will hardly be justified in the eyes of the nations, in amending the constitution, so as to prevent the Mormons from living in the confines of Democracy, or emigrating to a region (without).


In the evening, the Twelve met at John Taylor's. They read a letter from a man stating that he intended to form the United States of the West and warned the Saints that they would need to deal with him.  The Twelve considered the letter absurd and discounted it.  It was one of many letters that Brigham Young received from corrupt men.  Also at the council meeting came Elder Joseph Herring (a Shawnee) who came for counsel about going home to his tribe, on a mission.  Because the state troops left the city without making arrests, the Twelve were able to return to their families that night.

On this day, the last edition of the Nauvoo Neighbor was published by John Taylor, discussing much of the activity regarding the house‑burners, the court session, and the actions of the state troops.

A son, Joseph Smith Jones, was born to James and Mary Jones.[53]



Hartley, My Best for the Kingdom; History of the Church, 7:494‑500; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; Thomas Bullock Journal; Times and Seasons, 6:1052


                     Thursday, October 30, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was cold, and it started to rain at 10 a.m.  There was high wind around noon, but it cleared up later. Bishop George Miller and Brother Bedell returned from Springfield in the morning, and reported to Brigham Young regarding their interview with Governor Ford on October 28.  A council meeting was held in the morning at Albert P. Rockwood's home.  Further arrangements were made for the Herrings to return to their tribe.

In the evening Hosea Stout visited Henry G. Sherwood and heard him tell about his mission to the Emmett company. He reported that all was well but Emmett was “yet as untempered mortar.”

A son, Edward Partridge Young, was born to President Brigham Young and his fifth wife, Emily Partridge Young.


Springfield Illinois:

Governor Ford wrote a long letter to Bishop Miller in response to letters he received the day after Bishop Miller and Brother Bedell left Springfield. The Governor again defended himself against Orson Spencer's charges that he is another Governor Boggs. He stated that if he would not have sent his troops, the Anti‑Mormons would have raised a mob of four or five thousand men, and thus he saved the city of Nauvoo.  He mentioned that a man was missing in Nauvoo.  He had suspicions that this man was murdered by order of the leaders in Nauvoo, or at least that was what he had heard.  Stolen property had been found in Nauvoo and he discussed his belief that there was a gang of thieves in Nauvoo as there is in any city of its size.  He felt that some who lost their homes by fire, stole to make up for their losses.  All he really knew was that stolen property had been found in Nauvoo. For these reasons he felt justified to send and keep troops in the county during the winter, to provide protection for the saints and to prevent the stealing. If not, he felt the Saints would be driven from the state during the winter. He closed by stating that his health was bad, so he could not leave for Hancock County on Wednesday as he had planned.



History of the Church, Vol.7:502, 507; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:85, “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                        Friday, October 31, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was fine, with slight thunder and rain in the evening.  Brigham Young visited the Tithing Office and wrote a letter to Brother Vincent Shurtliff[54] to receive tithing and donations in the east which would be used to help the poor leave. President Young also received three letters from different individuals recommending locations in California for the saints to move.

Work in constructing wagons continued as a high priority task in Nauvoo. Police guards continued to be posted at the homes of Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball.

In the evening, the Council met at Elder John Taylor's house and wrote a letter to Reverend Bishop Purcell of Cincinnati telling him that the Saints would be leaving early in the spring.  They invited the Catholic Church to send agents to visit the city, that they might negotiate a sale of property. They promised to delay extensive sales to other communities until a reply was heard from Bishop Purcell. The Council also discussed rumors that the United States would try to prevent them from leaving by taking out writs on the Council of Fifty. Plans were devised to defeat this effort if it was undertaken.

A son, Hyrum Wright, was born to Jonathan and Rebecca Wright.[55]


New York City, New York:

Orson Pratt wrote a letter to Brigham Young, informing him that he was working to purchase the arms that he had requested to be used for self‑defense.  Previously raising money had been difficult because of the push for donations toward the tabernacle canvas, but he said that “the recent troubles in the west have put new life and zeal into the Saints in the east, they are very anxious to assist all they can, and to gather westward.”  He mentioned that he has been visited several times by the infamous Robert Owen, and that Elder Pratt was trying to persuade him to buy their houses and lands in Illinois. Owen was seriously thinking of relocating his group there.[56]

Elder Pratt also mentions that Samuel Brannan did not think he could leave and take his printing press with him because of debts and was suggesting that the church buy the press.[57]

Elder Pratt concluded his letter by stating: “Since I heard of your persecutions and resolutions to leave Nauvoo in the spring, I can hardly contain myself. I want to fly upon the wings of the wind and be with you, where you go, I want to go, where you stop, I want to stop.”



Clark, Messages of the First Presidency, 1:266, 2:90; History of the Church, 7:508‑510; “Luman Shurtliff Autobiography,” typescript, 61; Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, 9:509; B. H. Roberts, Defense of the Faith and the Saints, 2:193; B. H. Roberts, New Witnesses for God, 3:255; Andrew Jenson, Conference Report, April 1917, 100; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 85‑6; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Heber C. Kimball Journal; Watson, The Orson Pratt Journals, 305-06; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 3:287‑88


[1]After the death of Joseph Smith, the Church was led by the Twelve Apostles.  Brigham Young was the President of this quorum.  At this time there were thirteen members of this quorum.  The other members of the Twelve were: Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, William Smith (away in the east), Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, John E. Page, John Taylor, Wilford Woodruff (on mission in England), George A. Smith, Willard Richards, Lyman Wight (on the way to Texas), and Amasa M. Lyman.  There were thirteen members of the quorum because Amasa M. Lyman had been serving in the First Presidency when Joseph Smith was killed.  He returned to the quorum of the Twelve in August, 1844.

[2]This is the same Stephen A. Douglas who later served in the United States Senate and ran for president against Abraham Lincoln in 1860.  Joseph Smith had prophesied to him in May, 1843:  “Judge, you will aspire to the presidency of the United States; and if you ever turn your hand against me or the Latter‑day Saints, you will feel the weight of the hand of the Almighty upon you; and you will live to see and know that I have testified the truth to you; for the conversation of this day will stick to you through life.”  Douglas did later turn his hand against the Church and did lose his presidential election bid.


[3]Daniel Spencer Jr. was the brother of Orson Spencer.  Daniel had served as the mayor of Nauvoo.  He would later serve as a bishop in Winter Quarters.

[4]Samuel Worthen joined the Church in 1839.  He was a farmer and Stonemason.  The family later settled in Panguitch, Utah.

[5]Thomas Bullock had served as a clerk to Joseph Smith.  At this time he was serving as a clerk to the Twelve.

[6]Stephen Nixon grew up in Leek, England with Thomas Bullock.  He also married Harriet Rushton, first cousin of Thomas Bullock’s wife, Henrietta.  The Nixons were baptized in 1840.

[7]Shadrach Roundy joined the Church in 1831.  He had served as the captain of the police for Joseph Smith.  Shadrach Roundy would later be one of the three men who plowed the first furrow in Great Salt Lake valley. 

[8]William W. Phelps had been excommunicated from the Church in 1838, but was received back into fellowship in 1841.

[9]Samuel C. Stevens joined the Church in 1843.  He was a school teacher and merchant.

[10]Luman and Eunice Shurtliff joined the Church in 1836.  He kept an interesting journal during the 1845-46 period.  The Shurtliff family later settled in Ogden, Utah.

[11]John and Julia Pack joined the Church in 1836.  John would later be in the original pioneer company of 1847.  He helped to build Chase’s mill at Liberty Park in Salt Lake City and the first dancing hall in Utah.  Julia was a Relief Society teacher and First Counselor to the president of the Relief Society in Salt Lake City, 17th Ward.  In 1856 The Packs helped to settle Carson Valley (Nevada).

[12]Andrew Hunter Scott joined the Church in 1843.  In 1845, together with Jedediah M. Grant, he re‑organized the Woodstown branch, New Jersey, which had been visited by Sidney Rigdon, who persuaded all the members to follow him as leader and guardian of the Church.  Andrew Scott helped a company of Saints gather to Nauvoo.  He later settled with his family in Provo, Utah.

[13]Lyman Wight, one of the Twelve had left Nauvoo with 64 saints in 1844.  For some time he had desired to see the church relocate to Texas. He felt Joseph Smith had commissioned him for this mission.  He refused to take the counsel of the brethren to stay, and in August 1844, the Twelve gave him permission to leave.

[14]Almon W. Babbitt served as the president of the Kirtland Stake from 1841 to 1843.  He was a lawyer and frequently defended the Saints in court.  He would be appointed as one of the Nauvoo Trustees in 1846.

[15]Brother Orton had been a member of Zion's Camp, but had not been very active since it was discharged in 1834.

[16]Joseph Harrison Tippits joined the Church in 1832.  Later he would settle his family in Brigham City, Utah.

[17]The Quincy Whig later reported that on October 3, the house of Harrison Crawford had been robbed.  On this day, the state troops apprehended Thomas King as he attempted to drive some stolen cattle towards Nauvoo.  King pointed the posse to the house of Daniel Smith where more of Crawford’s property was found.  Other men were arrested who tried to flee.

[18]Luman Shurtliff was baptized in 1866 by Sylvester Pitt.  Luman would remarry a month later to Altamire Gaylord.  The family would settle in Ogden, Utah.  Luman would later work as vice-president of Z.C.M.I.

[19]William Wallace Casper joined the Church in 1834.  He would later serve in the Mormon Battalion.  He settled his family in Mill Creek, Utah.  Sarah Bean Casper joined the Church in 1841, thee years before their marriage.

[20]Edmund Lowell Ellsworth joined the Church in 1840.  He married Brigham Young’s daughter, Elizabeth Young, in 1842.  He later served a mission to England and on his return led the first handcart company to Utah.  He settled his family in Salt Lake City, and West Weber, Utah.  Later they moved to Prescott, Arizona.

[21]Oliver Cowdery was one of the Three Witnesses to The Book of Mormon.  In 1838, Oliver Cowdery was excommunicated by the High Council in Far West, Missouri.  He withdrew from the Saints and practiced law in Ohio.  In 1848, he was re-baptized into the Church.

[22]Unfortunately, neither Mother Smith nor her surviving children, Sophronia, Catherine, Lucy, and William, would accompany the Saints to the west.  Lucy Mack Smith would die on May 5, 1855

[23]See Doctrine & Covenants Section 55.

[24]Governor Thomas Ford later recorded that Daubenheyer’s body was found buried near a campsite on the Carthage road “with a musket ball through the back of the head.”

[25]Hyrum Washington Mikesell joined the Church in 1839.  He was a stonemason and helped to build the Nauvoo Temple.  Later, he would settle his family in Salt Lake City.

[26]In September, 1845, Sheriff Backenstos was being pursued by about twenty men. He enlisted the help of three men to resist his pursuers and one of his deputies ended up killing Frank Worrell who was the person in charge of the Carthage Greys at the prison when Joseph and Hyrum were murdered.

[27]Albert P. Rockwood joined the Church at Kirtland, in 1837.  In 1845, he was a general in the Nauvoo Legion and a municipal officer in Nauvoo.

[28]Lucy died in 1847.  Jonathan’s second wife, Elvira was sealed to Joseph Smith.  Lucy Elvira was later sealed to her mother and the Prophet Joseph Smith. Jonathan Harriman Holmes joined the Church in 1832.   Jonathan Holmes later served in the Mormon Battalion.  He settled his family in Farmington, Utah.

[29]Daniel S. Miles was baptized in 1832.  He was among the first settlers of Commerce (later Nauvoo) Illinois.  He is mentioned in D&C 124:138.  Joseph Young described Elder Miles as “a man of good faith, constant in his attendance at the meetings of the council, until the time of his death, which occurred at quite an advanced stage of his life.”

[30]Mary Ann Burnham would grow up and marry James P. Freeze.  She was the mother of nine children.  Late in her life she served as a member of the General Board of the Y.L.M.I.A.  She was one of the first missionaries to serve on Temple Square in Salt Lake City.

[31]Reynolds Cahoon was an early member of the Church.  He was baptized in 1830.  He served as a counselor in the Adam‑ondi Ahman Stake, in Missouri.  He later settled in Salt Lake City.

[32]He was the first Lamanite to be sealed for time and all eternity to his wife.  Elder Dana had also been the first Lamanite ordained to the office of Elder, four years previous.

[33]Thomas C. Sharp wrote a much different account.  He claimed Worrell and the others were ambushed by Backenstos and others who were hiding in bushes.  He named the trigger man to be Orrin Porter Rockwell.

[34]Alvin (Sr.) Joined the Church in 1833.  He would settle his family in Salt Lake City, where he later worked as a stonecutter on the Salt Lake Temple.

[35]James Arlington Bennet was appointed Inspector‑General of the Nauvoo Legion in 1842 and was Joseph Smith's first choice as a Vice‑Presidential running mate in the 1844 election.  He joined the church in 1843.

[36]John Milton Bernhisel joined the Church in the early days in New York.  In 1841 he was set apart as a Bishop in New York City.  He practiced medicine for many years.  He was a trusted friend of Emma Smith.  In 1851 he was elected as Utah’s first delegate to Congress.

[37]Sarah Packer would later die in Winter Quarters on December 19, 1845.

[38]Leonard Wilford Hardy later served as a counselor in the Presiding Bishopric of the Church in 1880-84.

[39]A few days later Bennet would tell church leaders he would “cross the Rocky Mountains” with the Saints. But after Brigham Young refused to appoint him the head of the Nauvoo Legion, Bennet returned to New York.

[40]The Roman Catholic Church did subsequently purchase some of the L.D.S. properties which aided the church in their move west.

[41]This is probably the proclamation Joseph Smith was commanded in 1841 to issue. (See D&C 124:1‑11)

[42]Reuben McBride joined the Church in 1834. He later served as a member of Zion’s Camp.  When the Saints left Kirtland, he was left in charge of the temple and other property in Kirtland, Ohio.

[43]Edwin Whiting was baptized in 1838 by Thomas B. Marsh.  He later settled his family in Manti, Utah and served on the Utah legislature.

[44]Francis (Jr.) would later die in Winter Quarters on January 23, 1847.  Francis (Sr.) was one of the original pioneers of 1847.  He settled his family in Springville, Utah.

[45]No other information is found regarding what happened to Nathan. However, I believe this was really Nahum Bigelow, a member of the church who had a large family and lived in Hancock County. Nahum later received his temple ordinances in December and two of his daughters later married Brigham Young. Nahum died in 1851, in Farmington, UT at the age of 65

[46]John Carlson joined the Church in 1832.  He later settled his family at Fairfield, Utah.

[47]The Twelve did not know this at the time, but Major Warren had come to Nauvoo to serve arrest warrants on all of the Twelve for “treason.”  When Elder Taylor made this speech, Major Warren became afraid to serve the papers and  changed his mind.

[48]Lyman Eugene Johnson was one of the original Twelve Apostles and served from 1835 to 1838.  He fell away from the Church during the difficult time in Kirtland.  He later drowned in the Mississippi River in 1856.

[49]Dr. Robert Foster was excommunicated from the Church in April, 1844.  Afterwards, he fought against the Church and is among those who was blamed for the deaths of Joseph and Hyrum Smith.

[50]Truman O. Angell was baptized into the Church in 1833.  He helped to build the  Nauvoo Temple.  Later, when the architect William Weeks left Nauvoo, Truman Angell was left in charge to complete the temple.  In 1848 he was chosen to replace William Weeks as the Architect for the Church.  Brother Angell would design many of the important buildings in Utah including the temples in St. George and Salt Lake City.

[51]The James Emmett Expedition was a group of 150‑200 saints who left Nauvoo in 1844 for the west. James Emmett had been appointed by Joseph Smith for a western expedition. Even after the death of the prophet, James Emmett continued with his efforts to recruit people to leave Nauvoo. In August of 1844, Brigham Young tried to stop the movement to leave Nauvoo. The Twelve counseled Emmett to stay, but he was determined.  He left in September with 150‑200 people, most of whom were very faithful members. They following Emmett because they believed Joseph Smith had ordered the venture, they wanted to escape the persecutions, they felt they were taking the gospel to the Indians, and they felt they were preparing the way for the Church as a whole to move west.  In March of 1845, Apostle Amasa Lyman visited the group and found about 150 souls “in a deplorable condition” of poverty and hunger. Emmett was rebuked for some of his actions. Earlier in the year, Brigham Young had disfellowshipped Emmett. With Apostle Lyman's visit, many in the Emmett group realized that Emmett had blinded them, however they were too ashamed regarding their state of poverty to return again to Nauvoo. Emmett moved his group and later in the summer, then left them to return to Nauvoo and report their location. Emmett pledged his loyalty to the Twelve and was given again his place in the Church.  James S. Fullmer and Henry G. Sherwood had been appointed to return with Emmett to the group in August of 1845.  They were then located in present-day South Dakota. (See Hartley, My Best For the Kingdom).

[52]It had taken them a full month to reach the Emmett camp, because of Emmett's poor guidance, arriving September 13, 1845.  They found about one hundred people in a better condition than they expected.  Fullmer and Sherwood arrived with the flu, so Emmett took advantage of this and tried to convince the camp that their illness was because the Lord was displeased with them.  However, they recovered and explained that they were instructed by the Twelve to take over the leadership.  Emmett opposed this, but the Saints accepted their leadership. Brothers Fullmer and Sherwood needed to return to Nauvoo. Because  they were still weak,  they asked John Butler to guide them back to Nauvoo.

[53]James Jones joined the Church in 1838.  Mary Partridge Jones joined the Church in 1839.  The family later settled in Payson, Utah.

[54]Vincent Shurtliff was an appointed agent for the church who was working to gather the poor to the main body of the Church.

[55]Jonathan Wright was baptized in 1843 by Hyrum Smith.  He served for a time as the city marshal in Nauvoo.  He settled his family in Brigham City, Utah, where he served as a counselor to Elder Lorenzo Snow in the presidency of the stake.

[56]Robert Owen was referred to as “the English Communist” who brought his utopian ideas to America and established a society in New Harmony, Indiana in 1828. He established the first kindergarten, first trade school, first free library and first public schools in America. In 1829, he had a famous debate with Alexander Campbell (Sidney Rigdon's associate) on the “Evidences of Christianity”. Owen did not believe in the Bible. B.H. Roberts would later call Campbell's defense against Owen “as the grandest defense ever made of historic Christianity.”  .

[57]This printing press was being used to print a paper in New York called the “New York Messenger.”  Brannan later did take this press with him on the ship Brooklyn which brought a group of Saints to San Francisco and printed the first real newspaper in California called “California Star.”