Saturday, November 1, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was fine with some lightning in the evening. Brigham Young paid William Clayton $100 to purchase instruments for a brass band.  At 10 a.m. the Twelve and the Presiding Bishop met in council.  Many in Nauvoo were still busily involved in chopping wood and constructing wagons.  Good feelings existed in the companies preparing for their move west.   

An issue of the Times and Seasons was printed on this day.  An editorial in the paper summarized the events over the past few weeks.  Houses and fields were burned in the Southern part of Hancock County.  The sheriff tried to put a stop to these crimes, but still a mob continued their work and burned nearly two hundred buildings and much grain.  Lives were lost.  The mob and government troops had stolen furniture, cattle and grain.  The persecutors demanded that the Church leave the United Sates, “peaceably if they could, and forcibly if they must.”  An agreement was reached in Quincy and the Church agreed to leave in the spring, but the crimes of the mob and a few individuals continued.  When they did leave, “we can then shake the dust from our garments, suffering wrong rather than do wrong, leaving this nation alone in her glory, while the residue of the world, points the finger of scorn, till the indignation and consumption decreed, make a full end.”  The Saints felt their proposed movement was a fulfillment of prophesy and that it was an event that “ancient prophets have long since pointed out.”



History of the Church, 7:510, 511; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:86; Times and Seasons; “Thomas Bullock Journal”        


                      Sunday, November 2, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

Brigham Young was ill and unable to attend to any business.  The weather was pleasant.  A meeting was held at the Nauvoo temple at 10 a.m. Elder Orson Hyde spoke and warned transgressors not to go west in the spring because the law of God would be put in force against “thieves and disorderly persons.”  He clearly stated that they would be sent away.  Elder John Taylor spoke on trusting in God.  Elder Heber C. Kimball next spoke and stirred up the people to finish the temple and pay their tithing.  “He said he had rather go into the wilderness with a pack on his back and his wife with a bundle of clothes under his arms and have the temple finished than to go with his wagon loaded down with gold and the temple not finished.”

Also in the morning, Hosea Stout and three other men took a buggy ride four miles north of Nauvoo to take a look at a ten-acre lot for which they would begin to use for wagon timber. 

In the afternoon, the first emigration company organized by appointing captains of tens.  The captains came to the front and a list was given to them to choose their men.  Elder Heber C. Kimball gave them counsel and instruction relating to the planned exodus.  The Second Quorum of Seventies held a festival at the Seventies Hall.       

In the afternoon, a baptism was held at the river.  Norton Jacob mentions that Brother Zenos Gurley helped him baptize and confirm Norton's father into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints.              



History of the Church, 7:512; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 20; Heber C. Kimball Journal in Woman’s Exponent, 11:185; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:86; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                     Monday, November 3, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was fine, but there was a sharp frost during the night.  In the morning, William Weeks, the architect of the Nauvoo temple, asked Brother Norton Jacob to go ahead and put in the truss timbers for the lower floor of the temple.

At about 3 p.m., Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball visited Elder Willard Richards who was sick.  Elder Richards’ home doubled as the Church Historian's office.  There, they saw Thomas Bullock, who was hard at work, writing baptism for the dead records.  This duty probably consisted of making a copy of these ordinances for the historical records.

In the evening, a council meeting was held at John Taylor's home.  Brothers Henry G. Sherwood, John S. Fullmer, and John L. Butler attended to make a further report on the country in the west.1

Abraham C. Hodge reported that he had a recent conversation with the apostate, Dr. Robert D. Foster, who was accused to be an accessory to Joseph and Hyrum's murders.  He reported that Dr. Foster wished he could take back the last eighteen months of his life.  Dr. Foster had said that he was a miserable wretch and had not seen one moment's peace since that Joseph and Hyrum’s death..  He feared meeting Joseph and Hyrum at the bar of God more than anything else.

In the evening, Hosea Stout met with Brother John Kay2 about starting up a gunsmithing shop, which he was willing to do.3  Hosea Stout also met with John Lytle, a blacksmith, regarding using his shop to forge gun breeches and other items, but they could not reach an agreement.4

On this day, somewhere away from Nauvoo, a Uriah Brown (non‑Mormon) wrote a strange letter to Brigham Young indicating that Joseph Smith had been interested in his invention of destructive weapons that could be used to defend Nauvoo.  Brown offered to give Brigham Young the secret of the weapon “for such just & equitable sum, as it may, perhaps, be in your power to dispose.”5



History of the Church, 7:417, 512; My Best for the Kingdom; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 20‑1; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:87; D. Michael Quinn, BYU Studies, 20:2:181; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Encyclopedia of Mormonism, Vol.2, ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE CHURCH; Comprehensive History of the Church, 3:406‑407; Jenson, Church Chronology, July 13, 1851


                      Tuesday, November 4, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was good.  At 2 p.m., Thomas Bullock was privileged to go with Curtis E. Bolton up the tower of the temple, to the top windows. He also went into the attic level in the rooms being prepared for the endowment ordinance.6  Thomas Bullock then attended a meeting at the temple of the Number One Emigrating Company.  Eighteen companies, each with ten families, were filled.  Parley P. Pratt and Amasa Lyman were appointed as captains over the first and second hundreds.

Hosea Stout, a captain of one of these companies, went and visited Peter Haws and reached agreement with him to use his steam mill to saw lumber for his wagons.7  The saw mill was  located close to the lot he had checked out on Sunday.  Henry G. Sherwood returned to him the six‑shooter he had borrowed for his trip to the Emmett company.

At 5 p.m., the Council met at the historian's office at Willard Richards’ home.


Carthage, Illinois:

On this day, another latter‑day martyr was produced at Carthage. Brother Joshua Smith died.  He had been poisoned by the militia while at Carthage where he was summoned to attend court.  The militia had searched him and found a knife under his arm and arrested him.  While under arrest, they gave him a dinner that contained poison.  He soon became very thirsty and vomited until he died.  The autopsy confirmed the suspicion.  He was second counselor in the Elder's Quorum at the time of his death.                     



History of the Church, 7:514; Dallin H. Oaks and Joseph I. Bentley, BYU Studies, 19:2:168; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:87‑88; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Encyclopedia of Mormonism, Vol.1, BOOK OF MORMON TRANSLATIONS


                   Wednesday, November 5, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

In the morning, a council meeting of the Twelve was held to direct the arrangement of the seats in the Temple.                    

In the afternoon, a council meeting was held at the Historian's Office.  Many men from the city were busy chopping wood for wagons at various locations away from the city.  Two men, Urban Van Stewart8 and George W. Hickerson returned after being overdue for seven days.  They had been away to obtain a raft, and their families had been very uneasy fearing that they had fallen into the hands of the mob.

Joseph Holbrook left Nauvoo with Alexander Standley on the steamboat Western Bell.  He was heading to St. Louis to settle the estate of his father-in-law, Rufus Flint.   Mary Flint Call, the wife of Anson Call was also a daughter of Rufus Flint.9


Lyman Wight's company arrived in Texas.10



History of the Church, 7:514; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript ,2:88; Thomas Bullock Journal; “Orange Wight Autobiography,” 15‑6; Comprehensive History of the Church, 2:435; Historical Atlas of Mormonism, 66; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:93  WIGHT, Lyman; Lyman Wight to Wilford Woodruff, 24 Aug 1857 in Leonard J. Arrington, BYU Studies, 13:1:24; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 3:526‑527; “Joseph Holbrook Autobiography,” typescript, 74-5


                    Thursday, November 6, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was “dull.”   At 4 p.m., a council meeting and prayer meeting was held at Willard Richards’ home and it continued on into the evening.  

Thomas Bullock, the Church recorder, settled up his “labor tithing” and  obtained a certificate entitling him to use the baptismal font which was located in the basement of the temple.11



History of the Church, 7:514; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; Thomas Bullock Journal; Lyon, T. Edgar, The Nauvoo Temple 1841‑1964, Improvement Era, Mar 1965; Todd, Jay M., Nauvoo Temple Restoration, Improvement Era, Oct 1968


                       Friday, November 7, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

A large raft of pine lumber came down the river.  It contained 100,000 feet of pine boards to be used to finish the temple.  Three days later, on Monday, Brigham Young, George Miller, and Heber C. Kimball borrowed $600 to pay for the lumber.     

A council meeting of the Twelve was held at 4 p.m. at Willard Richards’ home in the historian's office.                   


Island of Tubuai, near Tahiti, in the South Pacific:

Missionary, Addison Pratt,12 separated so long from his family, wrote:


This is my daughter Frances Stephens’ birthday, and how soon the dear little group are brought fresh to mind upon such a recollection.  And where are they today!  Who can answer that question?  Two long years have rolled away since I have heard from them, and how many more will have to follow, before I shall see or even hear from them, the Lord only knows.  And may he lead, guide and direct you all into all truth, are my daily prayers.



History of the Church, 7:514; Heber C. Kimball Journal in Woman’s Exponent, 11:185; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 89; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Ellsworth, The Journals of Addison Pratt, 251

                     Saturday, November 8, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was fine.  At 10:30 a.m., at Bishop George Miller's house, a trial was scheduled over a dispute between Thomas Bullock and Wellington Wilson.13  Brother Bullock claimed Wilson had his cow.  It was revealed that Wilson had bought the cow from a Mr. Irvine, who had bought the cow from a Mr. Barnes, a noted house‑burner and cow stealer.  Bishop Miller was going to rule that Wilson must go before Judge Higbee and return the cow to Brother Bullock, but because Bullock's key witness, Edwin Rushton did not show up for the trial, the whole matter was dropped and Bullock lost his cow.                                                                 

During the day, Brigham Young worked with Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards, and George A. Smith editing the History of the Church until 4 p.m. when they met with others in a council meeting.          


New York City, New York:

Orson Pratt issued his farewell message to all the Saints in the east.  He spoke strong words against those in the United States who have persecuted the saints.  “If we die in the dens and caves of the Rocky Mountains, we shall die where freedom reigns triumphantly.  Liberty in a solitary place, and in a desert, is far more preferable than martyrdom in these pious states.”  He called on the eastern Saints to immediately sell their farms and houses in order to get to Nauvoo before the Saints left in the spring.  This, they must do, even if it meant selling for one third the real value.  “The Lord requires a sacrifice, and he that is not willing, will fail of the blessing.  Brethren now is the time for you to be up and doing, for unless you can get to Nauvoo this winter, it will be entirely needless for you to go in the spring, for you could not arrive in time to leave with the Saints.”

He then addressed the poor and told them not to go to Nauvoo now unless they had enough means to buy horses, wagons and tents.  The rich should help the poor.  He encouraged some to raise money to instead travel by sea, around Cape Horn.  In this way, they could carry  many articles that would be impossible for them to carry over the mountains.  He mentioned that Samuel Brannan had been told to travel by sea so that he could bring his printing press. He planned to leave in January.  “Brethren awake!‑‑‑be determined to get out from this evil nation next spring.  We do not want the Saints to be left in the United States after that time. . . . Judgment is at the door; and it will be easier to go now, than to wait until it comes.”

Finally, after he left, he warned them that apostates would prowl around the branches in the east.  “They will present themselves before you as very pious and holy beings, mourning over the corruptions of the church while the Twelve Apostles of the Lamb will be represented as devils incarnate.”  He encouraged the Saints to be obedient to the commandments and offered an apostolic prayer for protection on these Saints.    



History of the Church, 7:515‑518; Times and Seasons; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                      Sunday, November 9, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

There was no public meeting on this Sabbath because the floor of the main hall in the temple had been taken up to put in new timbers.  The old ones had already become rotten.  However, a meeting with the brethren belonging to the different emigrating companies, was held on the upper floor of the temple.  Brigham Young addressed the brethren at 11 a.m.  He censured those who liked to talk of the mysteries of the gospel.  He said:


You hearken to this counsel and cease teaching things you don't know.  Elder Hyde told of the church going into the wilderness &c.  I heard of it at night.  I told him I did not care whether it was true doctrine or false. . . . There is not the man before me who knows anything about it.  When I understand the first principles, I understand more than all in this room.  They must be endowed with revelation from on high and no man has a right to teach, unless he is wrapt in the visions of eternity.


At noon, Brigham Young met with the captains of the various companies.  He gave some instruction about sending for some iron for the wagons.  He set a quota for each company and the money would be taken by Joseph L. Heywood to Quincy on Tuesday to purchase the iron.14

Brigham Young met with his company, Emigrating Company Number One, at 2 p.m. in the Grove.  Not much business took place because seventy-seven  people were absent, which must have frustrated Brigham Young.  Other companies held special meetings in order to raise the money needed for the iron.  One such company borrowed $50.00 from a Sister Green whose husband had returned to Michigan to sell his property.

Norton Jacob, who had been working on the temple floor, was being pressured by his wagon company to go to work in their shop to assist in making wagons for the expedition.  On this day he asked William Weeks, the architect of the Nauvoo temple, about this request.  Brother Weeks would not consent to this idea.

It was a pleasant evening, and the Twelve met in council at Willard Richards’ home.



History of the Church, 7:519; Bullock Minutes, Typescript 9 Nov 1845; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:90; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 20-1; Journal of Discourses, 13:.81‑82, George Albert Smith, June 20, 1869; “Zadoc Judd Autobiography,” 20                      


                    Monday, November 10, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was fine.  Brother Wandle Mace convinced Brother Weeks to let Norton Jacob go to work in the shops for making wagons.  Brother Jacob received from Moses Deming $30.00 to buy some of the pine lumber that had just arrived in Nauvoo by raft.  He  commented that “one dollar . . . was mysteriously lost in counting it.”

Brigham Young spent the day with Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards and George A. Smith editing the Church History.  Additional members of the Twelve joined the meeting in the afternoon.  They discussed purchasing the copyright of Mother Lucy Mack Smith's history and concluded to settle with Brother Howard Coray for his family's labor in compiling the history.15

David Candland, who had been serving as clerk for Hosea Stout, started working as a clerk for Brigham Young.


Island of Tubuai, near Tahiti, in the South Pacific:

Addison Pratt recorded in his journal:


This is my wife’s birthday.  My Dearest Earthly Friend!  Could I but know your situation this day!!  What a burden it would remove from my mind.  How little did I think when I was parting with you and our children upon the banks of the Mississippi, that after I left my native country two long years must roll away and not one word from you.  And the reports I hear respecting the troubles and afflictions that are heaped upon the church by mobs and marauders causes my heart to ache, and you I expect are in their midst.



History of the Church, 7:519; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 21; Heber C. Kimball Journal in Woman’s Exponent, 11:185; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Encyclopedia of Mormonism, Vol.3, SMITH, JOSEPH; Comprehensive History of the Church, 1:14; Lucy Mack Smith, History of Joseph Smith, p. vii; “Howard Coray Journal,” typescript, 19; James B. Allen and Leonard J. Arrington, BYU Studies, 9:3:256; Richard Lloyd Anderson, Circumstantial Confirmation of the First Vision Through  Reminiscences,  BYU Studies, 9:3:387, 388; Martha J. C. Lewis, “Martha Jane Knowlton Coray,” The Improvement Era, Vol 5 (1902) p.440; “David Candland Journal,” typescript, 2; Ellsworth, The Journals of Addison Pratt, 251


                    Tuesday, November 11, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

In the morning, Brigham Young, George A. Smith, and Willard Richards spent time working on the History of the Church.  In the afternoon, Heber C. Kimball joined them.  At 4 p.m., a council meeting was held at Willard Richards’ home.  Parley P. Pratt read an epistle to the churches that he had been instructed to write.  After the council, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and Levi Richards16 visited and administered to the sick.  They probably visited  Thomas Bullock's wife, who was very sick.

Much activity continued to take place in the entire city preparing for the exodus in the spring.  Hosea Stout was a man who was particularly busy.  In the morning he gave instructions at his house to his company constructing wagons.  At 9 a.m., he went to the Masonic Hall to try to borrow money from Brother Fuller for the iron.  He did not succeed.  After lunch he went to the steam mill.  Albert P. Rockwood wanted use of the mill for the temple committee.  Nothing was settled and they decided to let the Twelve decide, but they later reached agreement in the evening.  He then went to give some counsel to a sister, and from there went to give some instruction to the police force.  He spent the evening taking care of some business for his wagon company.

In the evening, the youth had a dance at the Mansion House.  Brigham Young and Sheriff Jacob B. Backenstos had supper with them as requested by Benjamin Johnson.

At least two births on this day in Nauvoo, David and Elizabeth Brinton had a son named Robert, and Ruth Ann Smith was born.



Dean C. Jesse, The Writing of Joseph Smith's History; History of the Church, 7:520; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:.90‑1; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                  Wednesday, November 12, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was cold and rainy.  The Council of the Twelve met during the afternoon for prayer.

There wasn't always harmony in the companies preparing for the west.  On this day Hosea Stout had to have a talk with three of his men who “had a spirit of dissatisfaction at the policy of our company affairs and some other matters.”

Heber C. Kimball completed his new, large, two‑story home.17

William Walker and Mary Aspin were married.  Also, twins were born to the Rigby's.


Camp Creek, Illinois:

Brothers William Rice and Samuel Hicks’ farmhouse was burned by about thirty members of the mob.  They tried to blame the governor's troops for the evil deed.  At 12:30 a.m., a company of thirty men came to the home and called for Brother Samuel Hicks, who got out of bed and asked what they wanted.  They said they were the governor's troops from Carthage and had a warrant of arrest for William Rice, who they believed was there.  Brother Hicks told them that he was not there.  They forced Hicks out of the house without anything but his shirt.  His wife and children were sick with the flu.  They ordered Joseph Swymler and his brother to carry out Brother Hicks’ goods, and then they set fire to the home before all the goods could be taken out.  They then brought Brother Hicks back, who was very cold and sick, gave him many insults, and then left.  Later they went and burned Brother Rice's home.


New York City, New York:

A Church conference was held in the evening, presided by Elder Orson Pratt.  Many members were present from Long Island, New York, Connecticut, and New Jersey.  The meeting was held at the American Hall.  Elder Pratt discussed the necessity of moving to the west.  He asked them to bind together and take care of the poor so that they would not be left behind.  Elder Samuel Brannan presented a list of resolutions.  They would: (1) Prepare for an immediate departure, (2) Condemn the resent proclamation by William Smith in the Warsaw Signal, (3) Sanction William's excommunication, warn those in the east whom he might visit, (4) Sustain the actions of the Twelve as being exemplary, (5) Advise William to keep himself from trouble, shame and disgrace, to repent and make restitution for lifting his hand against the Church, (6) Move one and all west of the Rocky Mountains by either land or water, (7) And not accept excuses from those who do not go, except old age, sickness and poverty.

Elder Brannan informed the congregation of his instructions to travel by water.  He called upon all who wanted to go with him to come forward at the close of the meeting and to put down their names on a list.



History of the Church, 7:520‑22, 530; Comprehensive History of the Church, 3:26; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:.91; Thomas Bullock Journal; NAUVOO NEIGHBOR‑‑‑‑EXTRA Nauvoo, November 19th


                   Thursday, November 13, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The day was cold and rainy again, clearing in the evening.  In the morning, Brigham Young and Willard Richards rode out to the prairie with several other.  They had lunch at Brother Chamberlain's.  Hosea Stout spent the morning dragging tree timber to be used for wagon axles, to the Masonic Hall.  He later had to settle yet another misunderstanding in his company at the saw mill, regarding the dividing of lumber.

On this date, Brigham Young Jr. (age 9) recorded that he was baptized (or re‑baptized) by his father.  Also, George A. Smith ordained John Mackley to be a high priest.

At 4 p.m., a council meeting was held.  It was decided that Mother Lucy Mack Smith should be furnished with food, clothing, and wood for the winter.  Prayer was held as usual.

After the meeting, Brigham Young and Willard Richards visited Stephen Markham18 who was cutting and sawing wagon spokes at his place in the woods.  They helped him cut and saw for awhile and then took a rifle and shot at a mark.  President Young was proud to record that on his second shot, he hit the pin that fastened the two‑inch paper target to the tree.

Brigham Young wrote a long letter to Noah Rogers who was serving a mission in the Pacific Islands.  He gave him some counsel and items of Church news.19

At night, the moon was almost totally eclipsed.  Hosea Stout recorded: “About dusk it was a beautiful sight and it spread a dark and dismal gloom over the bright and clear night and seemed to shroud all nature in deep mourning.  I never felt such a desolate sensation in my life at the changes of nature.”



History of the Church, 7:522; Brigham Young Jr. Family Group Sheet; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:91‑2; George Albert Smith, Sharing the Gospel With Others, 181‑82; Encyclopedia of Mormonism, Vol.3, OCEANIA, THE CHURCH IN; Andrew Jenson, Conference Report, April 1925, 110; Church Chronology, June 1, 1843; Times and Seasons, 6:1086‑1087; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 3:676


                      Friday, November 14, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

In the evening, the Twelve met in council at Willard Richards’ home.  They received a missionary report from James Henry Flanigan who served a two-year mission in the east.  He reported that they baptized 34‑40 people in Maryland and organized a branch there.20

Major Warren, Mason Brayman and others scoured the neighborhood near the recent house burnings and were able to identify a number of those involved.

After the meeting, Brigham Young and others went to the Masonic Hall to an exhibition of paintings of the martyrdom of Joseph and Hyrum at Carthage.  Also a painting was shown of Joseph addressing the Nauvoo Legion on June 17, 1844.  They had an enjoyable time and stayed there until 9 p.m.



Church Chronology, January 29, 1851 (Wednesday); History of the Church, 7:522;  Encyclopedia of Mormonism, Vol.1, ARTICLES OF FAITH; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:92‑3; Hallwas, Cultures in Conflict, 296


                    Saturday, November 15, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

During the day, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and Willard Richards visited throughout the city.

Elder James Houston returned from his mission to New York and Scotland.21

In the evening, the Twelve met for prayer at Willard Richards’ home.  Wagon company twenty‑three met at Brother Tefford's house and became organized.  Moses Deming was elected captain of all the teams.


Green Plains, Illinois:

At about midnight, near Solomon Hancock's house, a stack of straw was discovered on fire and several people went out to try to put out the flames.  They raked away the straw to prevent the barn from catching on fire.  While they were doing this, they heard a whistle from the east, one from the west, and soon a shot was fired at them.  Six guns were fired and one of the balls entered the body of Edmund Durfee, just above his heart. He died instantly.  No one else was hurt.  After his death, the mob boasted that they fired at Brother Durfee on a bet for a gallon of whiskey that they could kill him on the first shot.22



History of the Church, 7:523‑4, 537, 529, 145 Footnotes; Church Chronology, September 10, 1845; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:.93‑94; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 21; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; Hallwas, Cultures in Conflict, 296


                     Sunday, November 16, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

At 10 a.m., a public Sabbath meeting was held at the grove.  The speakers were Elders Orson Hyde, Heber C. Kimball, and Brigham Young.  At the meeting, “an epistle to the saints” was read, which was prepared the day before.  It asked for all those who have letters, books, maps, charts or documents of any kind that in any way relate to the history of the Church to bring them to the historian (Willard Richards) before Monday evening.  All elders who had been out on special missions within the past two years should make their report in writing, if they had not already done so, before Monday evening.  Anyone who had any fact, incident, event or transaction that they wished to be recorded in the history of the Church should do so before Monday evening.  The history of the Church was considered up-to-date as far as 1843, and it was desired to work on the past two years of history.

Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball addressed a problem in the wagon companies.  A number of the companies were operating under a form of “common stock” principles, pooling property together rather than private ownership, using business principles.  They asked the companies not to go into the common stock business.  Joseph Smith had earlier taught:  “And again, we further suggest for the considerations of the Council, that there be no organization of large bodies upon common stock principles, in property, or of large companies of firms, until the Lord shall signify it in a proper manner, as it opens such a dreadful field for the avaricious, the indolent, and the corrupt hearted to prey upon the innocent and virtuous, and honest.”

There was also an afternoon meeting held devoted to company business.  Between the morning and the afternoon meetings, Hosea Stout, Alfred Brown, and Eveline Robinson went up into the Nauvoo temple, to the top of the steeple “and had a fine and romantic view of the surrounding country.”  During the afternoon meeting, also held at the grove, a cold rain began to fall and continued throughout the meeting.  Jedediah M. Grant was appointed to be the third captain of “hundred.”

Edmund Durfee's body was brought into the city to be buried.  He was in a “heart rending condition, all steeped in his gore and his numerous family all weeping around him.”

On hearing of the Durfee murder, Major Warren immediately left with thirty men to search for those who committed the murder.

Brigham Young learned that Elder Theodore Turley was arrested at Alton on charges of counterfeiting.23  The Twelve met in council during the afternoon.  They worked on a letter that would be sent to Major Warren the following day.  Brigham Young received a letter from Sheriff Backenstos stating that Edmund Durfee was murdered and that the troops were not giving protection.  He asked what should be done to avenge Durfee's blood.

Mason Brayman, attorney for the State of Illinois, wrote a letter this day, probably to Governor Thomas Ford:


Depredations on both sides continue, and I am convinced that a general outbreak is intended.  Several robberies have been committed by the Mormons during the past week.  A pair of horses, two fat oxen, sheep, hobs, &c., are 'among the missing.'  They continue to send out spies, patrols, and armed companies, prowling about the prairies and interrupting travellers. . . . I am in possession of information which convinced me that a Secret but general organization has been in progress in this and the Surrounding Counties for the purpose of depredating upon the Mormons and producing a State of things which will bring on a Collision--to End in their expulsion from the State at once.


Some Nauvoo neighbors were having problems.  William Nixon had a cow that he refused to tie up.  On this day, again it leapt over a rail fence, pushed down another, and found its way into neighbors’ gardens.

In the evening, it was still raining very hard and it was very cold.



History of the Church, 7:524‑6; Smith, Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 144; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:93‑94; “Thomas Bullock Journal,” Church Chronology, May 9, 1840; Cultures in Conflict, 295-96.


                    Monday, November 17, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The morning was very unpleasant to move around the city because of all the rain during the night.  The roads were very muddy and difficult to travel.

William Weeks, the temple architect, came to Norton Jacob and requested that he return to take charge of framing the temple.  He had been allowed to work in the wagon shops for several days.

Orson Hyde finished the letter from the Twelve to Major Warren.  It told him about the murder of Edmund Durfee and the burning of Brother Rice's home.  “We look to you to take such steps and adopt such measures as you, in your wisdom, shall deem expedient, and that you will make your views public as early as consistent.”  They asked if they should send a number of men to the southern part of the county to protect their men who were gathering crops.

Affidavits were taken before the justice of the peace in regards to the murder of Brother Durfee and the burning of Brother Hicks and Brother Rice's homes.  Many elders provided reports on their missions as requested the day before.  Many certificates, books and papers were brought to the historian's office and were filed.

At 4 p.m., Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt, John Taylor, George A. Smith, Joseph Young, and Bishop George Miller met in council.  William Clayton joined them at 5 p.m.

Bishop George Miller held the position in the Church of “Second Bishop.”  Bishop Newel K. Whitney was the Presiding Bishop.  William Clayton, on this day, wrote of his grieved heart seeing the difficulties between these two bishops. Brother Clayton remarked how angry Bishop Miller was with him because he gave preference to Bishop Whitney.  He wrote how Bishop Miller was wasteful and wild in his business transactions “and if he had the management of the Temple business alone he would soon wind it up and scatter it to ruin.”

Thomas Grover Jr. was born, a son of  Thomas and Hannah Grover.24



“Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:94‑5; History of the Church, 7:525, 527; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 21‑2; Heber C. Kimball Journal; Thomas Bullock Journal


                    Tuesday, November 18, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was nice.  The Twelve met in council at Willard Richards’ home.  They received a letter from the attorney of the state, a Mr. Brayman, requesting affidavits and witnesses against the murders of Brother Durfee, to be sent to Carthage.  They were also told that George Backman, Mr. Moss and Mr. Snyder were charged with the murder of Brother Durfee.  The council immediately requested that witnesses leave in the morning for Carthage to testify at another expected farce.  Brigham Young also received a letter from Solomon Hancock, letting him know that Major Warren appeared to be doing all he could to find those who have been committing the crimes in the southern portion of the county.

Brigham Young received a letter from James Arlington Bennet, requesting that he, Bennet, be appointed as the military commander‑in‑chief in the church.  President Young commented that “the spirit of the letter shows a thirst for personal aggrandizement unbecoming a servant of God.”

Reynolds Cahoon confronted Hosea Stout, expressing anger toward him for saying that he had “been consenting to Joseph and Hyrum being given up at the time they were murdered.”  Brother Stout explained that this was  what he had heard and they settled the matter for the time being.25

Alanson Norton arrived in Nauvoo on a steamer with his branch of Saints from Clymer, Chautauqua County, New York.  They had made a long journey which included four hundred miles on a flat boat, on the Allegheny River to Pittsburg.26


Carthage, Illinois:

In the evening, the less‑violent anti‑Mormons in the area held a public meeting in the Court House for the purpose of  “rejecting and deprecating such Acts . . . and perpetrations” against the Mormons.  Thomas L. Barnes was appointed secretary of the meeting.  At this anti‑Mormon meeting, the group tried to distance themselves from the crimes.  “Resolved‑‑that we prefer, and the history of our difficulties shows that we have ever preferred, to suffer wrong rather than become wrong doers; and that the public abroad would do great injustice to us, and to their own candor, to confound us with, or hold us in any way accountable for the violent Acts of a few reckless individuals, such as civil commotions will always bring together for mischief.”  They looked forward to the time when the Mormons would leave the county and pledged to keep the peace.

Major Warren, in charge of the state troops,  made several very sharp speeches to the anti‑Mormons and let them know that if they did not help bring the murders of Edmund Durfee to justice, that he would withdraw his troops from the county and leave them to Sheriff Backenstos who was friendly to the Mormons.  He also mentioned that if he could not bring the murders to justice, he would establish martial law for a little while, try them by court martial, and have them shot.



“Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:.95; History of the Church, 7:527‑8, 531; Smith,  Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 377; Comprehensive History of the Church, 2:247; Stanley B. Kimball, BYU Studies, 11: 2:141, 145; Roberts, Life of John Taylor, 139; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Our Pioneer Heritage, 15:441


                  Wednesday, November 19, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was fine.  An “extra” issue of the Nauvoo Neighbor was published that reported the murder of Edmund Durfee and the arson to Brothers Rice and Hick's homes.  It reported that nearly 2,500 wagons were being built for “our Pacific journey” in the spring.  The Saints were asked not to take actions of revenge, but to look forward to a time of peace when they would be in the west.

A daughter, Ann Bennion was born to John and Esther Bennion.27


Carthage, Illinois:

Activity started to take place in relation to apprehending the murderers of Edmund Durfee.  A Mr. Stephens arrested some men and brought them to Carthage and wanted the privilege of trying his own arrests.  Major Warren knew that Stephens was a mobocrat and made Mr. Bartlett issue new writs and took the prisoners out of Stephens' hands.



History of the Church, 7:528, 531; Thomas Bullock Journal; Black,  Membership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints:  1830‑1848; Church Chronology


                   Thursday, November 20, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was nice, but getting colder.  Ice was spotted on the river in the morning.  Brigham Young wrote a letter to Wilford Woodruff who was still in Liverpool England, presiding over the British Mission.

Many of the brethren started returning from the southern portion of the county, taking in the grain.  Some would sell some grain in Quincy on the way back.

Some marriages took place.  Robert Lang married Joan Scobie and George A. Smith married his fifth wife, Ruth Ann Smith.


Carthage, Illinois:

Major Warren was very busy and active in arresting the murderers of Edmund Durfee and those who burned William Rice's home.  He had several of them under guard at Carthage while in pursuit of more.  He had chased one of them into Missouri and forced him back at gunpoint without any requisition from the governor.  He admitted to Sheriff Backenstos that Durfee would not have been murdered if the troops had not been in the county.



History of the Church, 7:530; “Warren Foote Autobiography,” typescript, 72;  Black, Membership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints:  1830‑1848; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                      Friday, November 21, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was quite cold.  The Twelve met in council and prayer in the evening.  Willard Richards was sick.  At about 7 p.m., Sheriff Backenstos came into the council and reported that he had been watching Major Warren very closely for the last four days.  He commented that he thought Major Warren had turned “Jack‑Mormon”28 because he was so active in pursuing the murderers of Edmund Durfee.  He also told them that he was served with an injunction by the clerk of the commissioners' court, and they have refused to issue orders granted by the last court to pay the sheriff's posse for quieting the rioters and house‑burners.

A son, Joshua Roberts was born to Sidney and Sarah Roberts, their fifth child.



“Warren Foote Autobiography,” typescript, 72; History of the Church, 7:530; Black,  Membership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints:  1830‑1848; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle


                    Saturday, November 22, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was very windy and cold.  The Twelve met with thirty‑eight brethren who had been expelled from Jackson County in 1833.  Several of them spoke, feeling that they were being neglected and treated as “cast off poor.”  Brigham Young spoke and told them that many of them had been slothful and had not preached or magnified their callings in the Church.

The plasterers finished the attic story of the Temple.  The attic story would soon be used to administer the endowment ordinance.

William Clayton, made out a deed from William Marks to the Trustees for “the Kirtland property.”29



History of the Church, 7:531; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                     Sunday, November 23, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The day was very cold, with thick ice on the river.  At 11 a.m. the seventies met in the Concert Hall.  Brigham Young met with the captains of the emigrating companies and gave them instruction to prepare themselves for the journey to the west.  It was reported that 3,285 families had been organized into companies, 1,508 wagons were on hand and 1,892 wagons were being built.

Peter Conover recalled an experience that happened about this time:


I had a wagon for my own use all ready for the cover when Brother Brigham came along and asked whose wagon it was. Someone told him it was mine. He came to me and told me that they had enough wagons, lacking one, to take the first company out. "Well," said I, "if you need that wagon take it, and welcome.”  That left me without one, but I soon had another one ready.


In the afternoon, the Twelve met in council where they read several letters, hearing of many threats from anti‑Mormons.

Jesse Wentworth Crosby and Hannah Elida Baldwin were married on this day.30


History of the Church, 7:532; Times and Seasons, 6:1031; Membership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints:  1830‑1848; Church Chronology; Benjamin Brown Testimonies For The Truth, 8; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; “William Huntington autobiography,” typescript, 42; “Peter Conover Autobiography,” typescript, 3


                    Monday, November 24, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The weather was cold and overcast.  At 10 a.m., Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, George A. Smith and Willard Richards met at the historians office at Willard Richards’ home, and read the History of the Church.

The Twelve met in council in the afternoon, offered prayers and wrote to Elder Theodore Turley who was at that time in jail, awaiting trial on false counterfeiting charges.

News came to Nauvoo that the men who murdered Edmund Durfee and also those who burned the Rice and Hicks houses were released by the magistrate without trial.  Many brethren had gone to Carthage to testify as witnesses, but returned unheard.  The grand jury was not even called to hear the case.



History of the Church, 7:532; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                    Tuesday, November 25, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

It was another cold day in Nauvoo.  On the bright side, it was a day of several marriages. Luman Shurtliff remarried to Altamira Gaylord, his late wife's sister, who he baptized in 1844.  They were married by Samuel Bent, a member of the high council.31  The family moved into Mother Gaylord's home since she couldn't take care of herself.  They arranged to take over all of her property in return for caring for her as long as she lived.32

Two other marriages were held, Alfred B. Lambson and Melissa Jane Bigler,33 and Noah T. Guymon and Margaret Johnson.34

The Saints were making rapid progress in their construction of wagons. William Huntington recorded:  “All is well in Nauvoo. The Saints are now at rest as to our enemies troubling of us at present. The Saints are making rapid progress in wagon making. I have this week got a room in the Nauvoo House enclosed for a shop to make wagons for my company.”

Thomas Bullock was still hoping to get his cow back (see November 8), but another witness had not arrived yet to testify for him.

A son, Moroni Browett, was born to Daniel and Elizabeth Browett.35



“Luman Shurtliff Autobiography,” typescript, 66; Black,  Membership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints:  1830‑1848; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 1:367  BENT, Samuel; Clark, Messages of the First Presidency, 2:105; Comprehensive History of the Church, 3:369; “William Huntington autobiography,” typescript, 43


                  Wednesday, November 26, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

It was very cold on this day.  While fetching water from the creek, Thomas Bullock had to break ice in order to obtain it.  Brigham Young and George A. Smith spent time at the historian's office (Willard Richards’ home) working on the History of the Church.  David Candland was asked by Brigham Young to go and prepare President Young’s room in the southeast corner of the attic.  Later, Heber C. Kimball and Brigham Young went to the temple and examined the progress of the rooms.  The painters had finished painting the attic of the Temple.  They also spent time raising funds to enable the work to continue on the temple.

The presidents of the different quorums of the Seventies met at John D. Lee's home. They made some arrangements to furnish two of the rooms in the temple.36

Elder Jedediah M. Grant bore his testimony to the group and then took his place as one of the first presidents of the Seventies.37

One of the wagon companies met and selected a new chairman.  Moses Deming asked to be excused from this position because of his deafness that made it difficult for him to hear people's remarks.  Norton Jacob was elected the new chairman.  He was still employed to put in the lower flooring timbers in the temple, but he accepted the position anyway.

A daughter, Percis Mitchell, was born to Benjamin T. and Louvina B. Mitchell38

In the evening it was snowing and the wind blew very hard.



History of the Church, 7:461,462, 532, 538; Times and Seasons, 6:1009‑1010; “Norton Jacob Autobiography,” 21‑2; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 2:.97; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Edgar Lyon, BYU Studies, 15:4:.442; Lisle G. Brown, BYU Studies, 19:3:370; “Harrison Burgess autobiography,” in K. Hales, Windows, 102‑3; “David Candland Journal,” typescript, 2


                   Thursday, November 27, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The day was very cold, with severe frost.  Ice was spotted running on the river.

Brigham Young spent time in the Trustees’ Office with Church business.  In the afternoon, Erastus H. Derby  called upon members of the Twelve to let them know that Silas Haight, a deputy U.S. marshal from Iowa and another “suspicious fellow” were loitering about the streets.  Brother Derby was trying to convince the Twelve to issue writs on them.  Silas Haight was the deputy marshal who brought writs of arrest for the Twelve to Major Warren.  (See October 25, 1845.)  Erastus Derby suspected that Silas Haight was still up to no good.

Even though everyone was very busy in Nauvoo, many were slowed often by sickness.  Hosea Stout couldn't work all day because of “a sick headache.”


West Lavington, Wiltshire, England:

William Draper was baptized by John Halliday.39



Black, Membership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints:  1830‑1848; History of the Church, 7:533; “Hosea Stout Diary”, typescript, 97; “Thomas Bullock Journal”


                      Friday, November 28, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The day was again very cold with a severe frost.  The Mississippi River was frozen at the “Upper Landing.”  Brigham Young attended to church business in the Trustee's office.  Willard Richards, George A. Smith, and Thomas Bullock read and worked all day on the History of the Church up to the end of 1843.

In the evening, the 11th Quorum of Seventies met at the home of Dustin Amy.

A daughter, Esther Ann Bushman, was born to Martin and Elizabeth Bushman.


Southhampton, England:

Thomas B. Stenhouse was ordained an Elder.40



History of the Church, 7:.533; Black,  Membership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints:  1830‑1848; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Church Chronology


                    Saturday, November 29, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

The cold weather continued.  Brigham Young met with the Twelve, Bishops Whitney and Miller, and a few others in the temple to lay the carpet on the floor of the main room in the attic level.41

Elder Noah Rogers arrived in Nauvoo, home from his mission to the Pacific Islands.  (See November 13, 1845,)

The entire city was still very busy.42

In the evening, a social was held at Brigham Young's home with the band.  President Young, Heber C. Kimball, Joseph Young, and Levi W. Hancock danced a “French four” together.43



“Thomas Bullock Journal”; History of the Church, 7:.533, 535, 436; Stanley B. Kimball, BYU Studies, 15: 4:476; Smith, ed., Heber C. Kimball Journal in An Intimate Chronicle


                     Sunday, November 30, 1845

Nauvoo, Illinois:

It was a very cold day.  At 9 a.m., a meeting of the Seventies was held at the temple.  At 10 a.m. the leaders of the Church assembled in the temple to prepare for the dedication of the attic level.  They dressed in temple clothes.  At 12 noon, the service began with the singing of “Come All Ye Sons of Zion.”  Brigham Young offered the dedicatory prayer for the rooms and a prayer for protection from their enemies.  He asked the Lord to sustain them until they have accomplished His will in the temple.  Elder John Taylor next sang, “A Poor Wayfaring Man of Grief,” the song that he sang for the prophet, Joseph Smith, in Carthage Jail.  Heber C. Kimball then prayed:


that the Lord would hear and answer the prayer of his servant Brigham, and break off the yoke of our enemies, and, inasmuch as they lay traps for the feet of his servants, that they may fall into them themselves and be destroyed; that God would bless his servant Joseph Young, and heal his wife, and bless his family; that God would bless and heal his own family, and asked for the same blessings on all our families which he had asked for Joseph Young and himself.


The meeting was interrupted by Hans C. Hanson,44 the temple doorkeeper, who reported that there were two officers waiting at the bottom of the stairs for Brigham Young.  President Young commented that he could wait for them out here, where it was warm, as long as the officers could wait out where it was cold.  They went on with the meeting.  Elder Amasa Lyman asked for a blessing to be healed and five brethren laid hands on him.  Joseph Young offered a prayer that their enemies would not have power of the leaders of the Church.  He prayed for the brethren in England and on the islands of the sea, for brothers Almon W. Babbitt,45 Theodore Turley (who was still held in jail) and the Reddens.  Hans C. Hanson and Peter O. Hanson46 were appointed to tend the temple fires,47 keep watch, and guard the doors. At 3:00, the meeting concluded.

A wedding was held.  Josiah Henry Perry married Lucinda Eliza Cole.48


Glasgow, Scotland:

Wilford Woodruff attended a conference in Glasgow. In the Glasgow conference there were 1,181 members.  Sixty‑eight people had been baptized since their last conference.



“Hosea Stout Diary”, 2:98; History of the Church, 7:534‑6, 554; “Thomas Bullock Journal”; Heber C. Kimball Journal; “Lorenzo Brown Journal,” typescript, 15; Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 2:766


1These brothers had recently returned from the Emmett company.  John L. Butler took longer to return because he feared traveling through Missouri.   John L. Butler, was the man who defended some brethren at the Gallatin, Missouri voting poll, many years earlier, by beating some Missourians over the head with a very large piece of wood.  Thus, his life was sought by many from Missouri. It was wise that he separated from Sherwood and Fullmer, because when these two men were near St. Joseph, Missouri, five armed men confronted them and demanded that they show them John L. Butler, who they knew were with them.  He was not there. The men cursed and swore and said they would “damn soon put an end to him [John L. Butler.]”

2John Moburn Kay was baptized in 1841.  He had a beautiful singing voice and was often called on by Joseph Smith to sing.  He was a member of the Nauvoo Legion, brass band, and police.  He later would spend the winter of 1846-47 at Fort Ponca.  On his return to Winter Quarters he froze his feet.  He settled in Salt Lake City.  In 1864 he died while on a foreign mission.

3 John Kay would later mint the first coin in Utah using the gold dust that the Mormon Battalion brought back from Sutter's mill.  Earlier in 1845 he drilled out a six-pound cannon.

4 John Lytle was one of the policemen who were charged with destroying the Nauvoo Expositor press, but were acquitted.  He later became the bishop of the 11th Ward in Salt Lake City.

5It is not known if Brigham Young ever replied to this strange letter.  But in 1851, Brown found his way to Utah and was still trying to sell an “invention of liquid fire to destroy an army or navy.”                          

6Curtis E. Bolton would later be wounded in a battle the following summer in Nauvoo.  He also would later translate the Book of Mormon into French in 1852.

7Peter Alpheus Haws had a leading role in constructing the Nauvoo House and his name is mentioned in D&C 124.  He later served in the Mormon Battalion.

8Urban Van Stewart joined the Church in 1836.  He lived through the times of persecution in Missouri.  In Nauvoo, he served in the guard.  Later, in 1847, he would help plant crops at Brigham Young’s farm in “Summer Quarters.”  He was a pioneer settler in Beaver, Utah.  Later he served as Presiding Elder in Grover, Utah.

9After accomplishing this mission, Joseph Holbrook experienced an accident on a steamboat in January.  He recorded:  “While leaving the steamboat at the wharf, I had a man to take hold of my large trunk which weighed about 200 pounds, besides that hold of the trunk handle at the other end with my saddle bags on my other arm with a scythe on snath in my hand, when the plank leading to the shore slipped off the boat and let us both into the river where the water was much over my head. I immediately walked to the shore bringing my trunk with all the rest of my luggage with me. Then there was a general shout on the levee at so singular an accident.”

10Lyman Wight, one of the Twelve Apostles, had left Nauvoo with 64 saints in 1844.  For some time he had desired to see the church relocate to Texas. Like Emmett, he felt Joseph Smith had commissioned him for this mission.  He refused to take the counsel of the brethren to stay, and in August 1844, the Twelve gave him permission to leave.  They settled for awhile near Austin where they built saw and grist mills and helped outfit a number of companies going to California.  Lyman Wight was excommunicated in 1848 and he later died in 1858.  The majority of his colony later joined the RLDS church and some were rebaptized into the LDS church.  Lyman Wight had spent time in Liberty Jail with the prophet, and in 1857 he wrote to Wilford Woodruff: “the mission I am now on. . . I received of the prophet of God, and . . . such a mission was even talked of while in jail where I had the advantage of six months teaching and received many things . . . yet unknown to the church. . . . Joseph blessed me many times while in jail and prophesied much on my head and gave me much good instruction which is long to be remembered.”                                          

11This font was constructed of pine, resting on twelve oxen which had been carved from pine planks and glued together.  There were four oxen on each side and two on each end. The original font was sixteen feet long, east to west, and twelve feet wide, seven feet above the floor and four feet deep.  The moulding of the base was beautiful carved wood in antique style, and the sides were finished with panel work.  There were steps leading up and down into the basin in the north and south sides, guarded by side iron railings.  This temporary wooden font began to leak terribly and was later replaced by a stone font resting on oxen made out of stone.

12Addison Pratt organized the first branch of the Church on Tubuai about the time Joseph and Hyrum were martyred.  In 1844, Addison Pratt wrote this in an interesting letter:  “I baptized nine persons, four Americans, one Scotchman and four natives, having previously baptized one.  On the 29th, I organized the Tubuai branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints, numbering eleven members, all in good standing.  On the 5th of August, I administered the sacrament.  For wine I substituted coconut milk, that was a pure beverage, which never had come to the open air till we broke the nut for that purpose.  On the 8th I baptized another person.  The inhabitants here have resolved to build me a house.  This climate is fine, never so cold as to freeze, though in July and August it is as cold as it can be and not freeze.  January and February are the warmest months, though the heat is never so scorching as some days we have at home.  In summer, however, the mosquitoes are innumerable and in winter the fleas are equally plentiful, though we have means to guard against them.”  Addison Pratt would not return home to his family until September 1848, after a mission on which he baptized about 1200 people.  Elder Pratt would receive his endowments on the top of Ensign Peak. 

13Wellington Paul Wilson joined the Church in 1836.  He stayed in Iowa for many years and later came to Utah in 1867.  He settled in Muddy, Utah.

14The supply of iron was very limited, and they soon would exhaust the supply of all the towns on the upper Mississippi.  The iron was substituted with rawhide and hickory withes.  Many wagon wheels were soon made of wood rather than iron.

15Lucy Mack Smith, the mother of the Prophet dictated to Martha Jane Knowlton Coray a history of the Prophet Joseph Smith completed in 1845.  Mother Smith was then 69 years of age.  Brother Coray had been a scribe for Joseph Smith from 1842‑44.  He also assisted his wife in working on the history with the approval of Brigham Young.  Howard Coray's job was evidently to transcribe the final copy from his wife's corrected notes.  In 1902 Martha Jane's daughter described her mother as essentially the recorder of dictation:  “She then read over, several times, what she had written, making such changes and corrections as Mother Smith suggested.”

        There were three copies of the work.  One was the Coray's corrected notes.  Another was given to Lucy Smith, and the third was given to Brigham Young, later in Utah.  The copy left with Lucy Smith fell into the hands of her son William Smith, and later into the hands of Isaac Sheen, who sold it to Orson Pratt in 1852, when he was on his way to England on a mission.  Orson Pratt published the history as “Biographical Sketches of Joseph Smith the Prophet, and His Progenitors for Many Generations” without the permission of Brigham Young and the edition was suppressed because of perceived errors.  The book was republished in 1880 by the Reorganized Church.  In Utah, the work was finally revised by George A. Smith and Elias Smith, cousins of the Prophet under the direction of Brigham Young.  They modified certain dates, substituted firsthand information for some of Mother Smith's secondhand impressions, and deleted a few passages where the mother had glorified William Smith (who had been excommunicated in October 1845).  The accuracy of Mother Smith's recollections of the early history of the family's religious experience was never at any point challenged.  This work was published by President Joseph F. Smith in 1902 as History of the Prophet Joseph, by his Mother.  There have been various revised editions since that time.

16Levi Richards was Willard Richards’ brother. He was a “Thomsonian” doctor, who used herbal medicines for treatment.

17This home is now a popular tourist attraction in Nauvoo.  The Kimballs would only get to enjoy their fine home for four months and five days.  They would then spend another six years living in tents, wagon boxes, and log cabins.

18Stephen Markham joined the Church in 1837.  He served as a Colonel in the Nauvoo Legion.  He later was in the original pioneer company of 1847.  He settled in Spanish Fork Utah, where he served as bishop.

19Noah Rogers was called on this mission by Joseph Smith.  He, Addison Pratt, and Benjamin Franklin Grouard, arrived at Tubuai Island, 350 miles south of Tahiti, on April 30, 1844 after an eleven-month journey.  They established the first branch of the Church in Oceania in July 1844, with eleven members.  Brigham Young must have written Noah words of encouragement which he never received, because being somewhat discouraged, Noah was on his way back to America, arriving in Nauvoo on November 29th, and was the first elder of the Church to circumnavigate the globe.  He had left for home in July, 1845.  Work in Tahiti was discouraging because the islands started to pass laws that no white man could live among them.  Addison Pratt and Benjamin Grouard remained on the Islands.  Noah Rogers later took sick and died on the plains of Iowa, the first of the Saints to be buried at Mt .Pisgah, Iowa where later 250 Saints would be buried.

20Elder Flanigan later served a mission in England and published a list of 14 Articles of Faith in a pamphlet in 1849 that closely resembles the Wentworth version, with a few additions.  Elder Flanigan died of small‑pox at Birmingham, England in 1851.

21Elder Houston had left three years earlier, on November 1, 1842.  While on his mission he baptized ninety-five people.  On his return, he was put in charge of a company of saints that sailed from Liverpool, England in September and arrived in Nauvoo on this date.

22Earlier in September, Edmund Durfee's house in Morley's Settlement was burned down and he had come to Nauvoo to live.  He had recently returned to the southern part of the county to take in his grain.

23In 1840, Theodore Turley had also been thrown in jail during his mission to England because of false charges made by a Methodist preacher.

24Thomas Grover Sr.  was a member of the High Council in Kirtland, Zion, and Nauvoo.

25This appears to be in reference to the event now recorded in the History of the Church.  Before Joseph and Hyrum Smith were taken to Carthage, they went across the river to Iowa with the thought of starting towards the Rocky Mountains.  On the next day, a posse arrived in Nauvoo to arrest Joseph and created much fear in the city.  A letter was taken to Joseph Smith from Emma by Reynolds Cahoon.  Brother Cahoon urged the prophet to give himself up, since the governor had pledged to protect him.  Reynolds Cahoon, Lorenzo  D. Wasson, and Hiram Kimball are said to have accused him of being a coward, leaving them like a false shepherd leaving his flock when the wolves attack.  At this point, Joseph was said to have uttered, “If my life is of no value to my friends, it is of none to myself.”  He then returned that evening to Nauvoo.  So Brother Cahoon appears to have been trying to change or clear up the account that nevertheless made it into the official church history which was being compiled at this time in Nauvoo.

26Alanson Norton would later set up a carding (wool) mill on the North bank of the Provo River, in 1851.  In 1856 he moved his family to Sugar House, south of Salt Lake City, to operate a carding mill by assignment from Brigham Young.  In 1867, he moved to Brigham City to take charge of the woolen factory in the community.

27Little Ann would die in September 1847.  A large number of children who were born during this time did not live to see Utah.  The Bennions came to Utah in 1854.  John died in North Jordan in 1877 and Esther died in Taylorsville, Utah in 1909.

28At that time, the term, “Jack Mormon” was used to refer to non-Mormons who were friendly to the Mormons.

29Apparently, William Marks (former stake president of Nauvoo, turned apostate) had sold some Kirtland property  to the Church.

30Shortly after Jesse Wentworth Crosby joined the church in 1838, he experienced a terrible accident.  A tree limb fell on him from a height of sixty feet, crushing his skull, neck and shoulders.  He was carried to his home and a doctor was about to operate on his skull, to insert a metal plate, when his mother objected and called for Elder Benjamin Brown.  He blessed Jesse and soon Jesse was back working.  He served a mission to Nova Scotia and England, and later died in Panguitch, Utah, in 1893.

31Samuel Bent later presided over the Garden Grove settlement and died in 1846.

32Later, in 1846, her non‑member son, Thomas, persuaded her to not go west with the Saints, but to go east.  Soon thereafter she died.

33Alfred Lambson later served a mission to the West Indies in 1853.  He died in 1905.  President Joseph F. Smith married one of his daughters.

34Noah would be called to serve a mission to Europe in 1852, would return leading a company of Saints to Utah in 1855, serve as a president of the 51st quorum of Seventy in Springville, Utah in 1857, the 81st quorum in Orangeville, Emery county in 1884, and died there in 1911.

35Daniel joined the church in England and was in charge of a ship of Mormon immigrants in 1841.  He would later serve in the Mormon Battalion.  As the Battalion was crossing over the Sierras, heading for Utah, Daniel was murdered by Indians, terribly mutilated at a place that took the name “Tragedy Spring.”

36Among the furnishings to be provided by the leaders of the church and their wives were, drapes for the windows, canvas curtains to divide the mail room on the attic level into compartments, carpets for the attic floor, portraits, chairs, sofas, mirrors, and potted plants.  Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball would donate two large wooden tubs to hold water.

37Elder Grant would later serve as an apostle and as a councilor in the first presidency.  He had been sustained as a president of the Seventy in the recent October General Conference.  He filled the position vacated by Roger Orton who had “neglected” the office and did not magnify his calling.  Brother Orton had been called a year earlier to this position but never came forward to serve in the office.  Brother Orton always sustained Joseph Smith, saw angels in the Kirtland Temple, but he never was very active in the church after Zion's camp was disbanded.  At this time he was running a “public house” in Augusta.

38Little Percis would later die right before her first birthday in Winter Quarters.  Benjamin T. Mitchell was later called on a mission to Canada in 1852.

39William Draper later went to Utah in 1852, serving as a Bishop on the plains.  He was the Presiding Elder of the Draper Ward from 1852‑1856.

40Thomas Stenhouse later went with Lorenzo Snow to Italy and Switzerland.  He served as the president of the Swiss Mission from 1850‑1854.  He assisted John Taylor in publishing the church periodical, The Mormon in New York, would frequently write for the Deseret News and published The Telegraph.

41The attic level was being prepared for endowment ordinances.  Originally, side rooms in the lower levels of the temple were going to be use for this purpose, but those levels were not complete.  There were also several of the small side rooms of the attic level ready for the First Quorum of Seventy to meet in.

42Each wagon company had established wagon shops.  Wheelrights, carpenters, and cabinetmakers  were at work in every part of the town preparing timber for making wagons.  The timber was cut and brought into the city green.  The wood for the wheels were boiled in salt water and other wood was kiln dried.  Wagon shops were established in the Nauvoo House, Masonic Hall, the Arsenal and nearly every shop in town.  Blacksmiths were at work night and day.  Very little property had been sold thus far.  The citizens of the county had been discouraging sales.

43A French four is a square dance of French origin performed by four couples.

44Hans Christian Hanson was born in Copenhagen, Denmark.  He went to sea as a boy and during one of these voyages, he visited America where he was taught the gospel.  He joined the Church in 1842.  He later was in the original pioneer company.

45Almon W. Babbitt was on a mission to the east in attempt to find buyers for Nauvoo property.

46Peter O. Hanson would later translate the Book of Mormon into Danish.

47There were two stoves in the main room of the attic.

48In January, Josiah would be severely injured while working on the temple.  A scaffold gave way and struck his feet. Josiah later settled in Weber Co., Utah.